How To Turn Intermittent Fasting Into An Efficient Fat Loss Tool

As you have probably read in part 1 of the Intermittent Fasting article series, IF has several disadvantages besides the things that are good about it.

In general, IF can be a good tool if it fits into your lifestyle, which brings me to why I personally started IF and recommend IF to others…


Best restriction for some people

All types of diets is based on restriction of some sort. This is the reason why diets works, besides energy restriction, there are all kind of other restrictions, like fat for High-Carb-Low-Fat Diets, carbs for High-Fat-Low-Carb diets (e.g. Keto diet), processed ‘modern’ food like in the case of the paleo diet, or the time restriction for IF. Depending on your personality, some of the restrictions will work better for your than others. For me, time restriction works really well, as it is mentally easier for me to either eat or not eat, than have a little bit of food here and there. If I don’t set myself strict rules for when I am allowed to eat and when not, my brain will then try to find excuses why I should get something to eat right now. This is not only challenging for keeping up with my diet, but also for staying focused at work. When having food is not an option, like during my fasting window, the thoughts of getting something to eat don’t even cross my mind. This is what works for me, it doesn’t mean that it works for everyone.


Making Bigger Social Meals Fit Into A Weight Loss Diet

Often the clients that I suggest implementing IF as a strategy are those that tend to have bigger social meals in the evenings, ie eating out and not having prepared meals that fit their meal plan, thereby putting themselves at risk of exceeding their calorie deficit. A good strategy for them to save some calories for events like that in the evening, is to fast earlier in the day, for instance not to have breakfast.


Larger Meals Are More Satisfying

Another point to mention is that during a calorie deficit, which a person usually is in when they do IF as a means for weight loss, many people, myself included, prefer to have fewer, larger meals a day as opposed to many smaller frequent ones. In addition to this, as I am already at an advanced stage with my training, I want to consume most of my meals around my workouts (detailed explanation why it is more important for advanced lifters than beginners will come in my future articles). I usually train later in the day or sometimes in the afternoon, so I try to save my bigger meals for after my workout to support my muscle growth.


Shifting nutrient intake to the evening for a better body composition

Another benefit of shifting all my nutrients towards the evening is that research has shown that it is better to consume most of your protein later in the day (ref). This also applies to carbs; there is some evidence that shows that people that consumed carbs later in the day also found positive benefits for their body composition (ref).


IF saves time and increases efficiency

I have found that IF actually helps me to get more things done in the mornings and work more efficiently because I tend to do most of my important tasks before breakfast. Actually, as a result, it motivates me to get focused and not procrastinate, so that I could get what I need to done and finally have my breakfast!


Trying new exciting food without compromising the progress

Lastly, I have found that as I travel a lot and I want to enjoy my travel experiences by enjoying the local foods; IF has again proven to be an effective tool for saving and distributing my calories accordingly. So again, I have managed to save my bigger meals for the evenings when I go out and simply fast through breakfast.


Again the diet strategy works if you can stick to it and it fits into your lifestyle, not because one diet is superior than the other. Actually IF has several drawbacks when it comes to energy balance (decreased movement, and BMR), as I mentioned in the previous article.


But isn’t it hard to fast?

In the beginning, IF will be hard. I personally found this to be the case, because I am a breakfast person and it is my favourite meal of the day. By the third day however, I had adjusted to it. So how were these three days? I usually wake up at around 5:50am and try to have breakfast at 7:00. In this in stance, I just delayed my breakfast. So in the first day, I just had some tea and delayed it until 10:00 am. The next day, I delayed it again til I had it at 11:00 and then by the third day I was able to fast until 12:00. Doing it in this gradual way wasn’t that painful because you could positively push and motivate yourself by saying “Yesterday I did it at 10, so today I could do it half an hour or even an hour later”.


What about protein absorption?! Don’t you waste protein but consuming too much within a short time?

Isn’t there a claim (cough: myth!) that says it could be a problem if you consume most of your protein in this short window, because you can only really eat 30 g of protein at once, therefore the remaining will get wasted? Well, that is simply not true! For example, a study has compared the consumption of 40 g protein against 70 g of protein, and the latter outperformed because the whole body net nitrogen balance was higher (ref). The reason for this is that the 70 g meal caused the protein not to break down as much; to clarify, it wasn’t like the 70 g caused (muscle) protein synthesis to increase more than it would have in the 40 g meal, rather less protein was broken down. The concept of “total muscle gain” is based on a balance between muscle protein synthesis (building muscle) and muscle break down. Therefore (this will make sense now!), the breakdown was lower with the 70 g meal in comparison to the 40 g meal. As such, I do not have any concerns about consuming more protein later in the day.

Want to recap all the facts?

Then watch this video:


PS: If you want to make sure you are following the most optimum nutritional plan for your current goals and learn the tools to make your diet work for your lifestyle and not the other way around, then check out my Customized Macros Package!


Intermittent Fasting - where you are going wrong & missing out on the benefits

Is intermittent fasting really the miracle solution to losing fat, gaining muscle and living healthily?

Is it the all-rounder diet which could help to reach all your goals - muscle gain and fat loss - at the same time (even if they contradict each other)?

What if I told you that IF can actually make you lose muscle and gain fat if you don’t do it right?

What to learn how to do it right? - Then read on.


IF 101

Fasting should usually be done overnight and extended into the morning, whereby the first meal is lunch. Usually a person’s last meal would be in the evening, ie dinner, then they start IF again which continues through the night until the next day again, where their first meal is lunch.

It is important to highlight that there is no strict rule to this. In theory, you could also have breakfast and lunch, skip dinner and fast overnight.

How you arrange your fasting window and its length is dependent on your schedule and your personal preference. There is no fixed time or window for IF itself and when you should eat. Some people will have a 4 hour window, some may have 6 and some will have 8 hours. Again, this entirely depends on YOU.

What is important is structuring your meals. You shouldn’t just eat anything at any given time during your non-fasting-window. There are many benefits to a structured meal pattern, including the most obvious of not just randomly eating and thereby running into the danger of overeating.


So why do people IF and why is it beneficial?

I often get the impression that many people do IF because they think that it is another miracle solution for fat loss and possibly lean gains. Another diet that offsets fundamental energy balance principles (ie you need to eat less than you expend to lose weight) and makes you lose more fat than other diets do.

IF is definitely more beneficial for people, that want to lose weight as opposed to those that want to gain weight or muscle. As a result of the shorter eating-allowance-window, it is more difficult to get more calories in, therefore this would be difficult if you were say a big guy that needs to get 5000 kcal in/a day!

If you were a big overweight guy that wants to lose weight, not being able to get 5000 kcal in is a good thing. On the other hand, if you were a ripped active dude who needs 5000 kcal to make muscle gains, not getting these in because of the limited eating time is not a wise strategy for your goals.

As always, it is important to use common sense for the entire issue. A shorter eating window does not guarantee that you won’t overeat in this period and lose weight automatically. Everything depends on your food choices. If you eat high-calorie junk in your short feeding window instead of calorie-reduced meals that bring you into an energy deficit, then you actually can gain weight with IF. It doesn’t matter what strategy you use, the general principle for weight loss stays the same: you need to expend more energy than you eat.


Speaking of energy expenditure, there are equally some negative things about IF too.


Fasting periods of 20 hours or longer (if your eating window is 4 hours or less) causes your basal metabolic rate (BMR) to decrease; thus, your metabolism slows down even at times when you don’t fast (ref). BMR is the energy you spend for your basic tasks, such as for your heart to beat. I personally would not recommend to anyone to fast more than 18 hours anyway.

Fasting causes you to move less during the fasting period, thereby causing you to expend less energy overall (to learn more on this topic, join the Bayesian PT Course).  IF isn’t ideal for people that are very active in the mornings, it probably has a smaller negative effect on those that are more sedentary (ie office based jobs). If you have a very sedentary occupation, e.g. sitting in front of your computer all day, then it probably won’t matter too much for your total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), other than that you may become lazier and start writing shorter emails! However, if typing emails is the task you expend the most energy on during the day, then perhaps you need to look into other things you could do ensure you are moving more.

However, if you are active during the fasting times (e.g. you are doing lots of housework), fasting may decrease your TDEE, thus you may lose less weight at the end, compared to a diet with the same calorie intake, but without intermittent fasting.

Screenshot (816).png

In general, if fasting saves you enough calories to overcome the 'moving less and expending less' trade off and you like the strategy, then you can use it for weight loss. That is subject to having the time restriction being helpful for you. If not, then it's not a good strategy for you.

Here is an example:

A busy house wife usually prepares food in the morning and may snack unnecessarily on food while preparing it. The unnecessary snacking adds 250 kcal to her calorie intake every day. By starting IF and putting a restriction on not eating in the morning, she starts consuming 250 kcal less a day. However, because she fasts she starts moving less and expends 100 kcal less in the morning - in total, she has  saved 150 kcal (250 kcal from not snacking - 100 kcal from moving less) compared to before. For her IF makes sense.

However, if her energy expenditure goes down by 300 kcal as a result of her decreased movement in the morning, fasting wouldn't make sense. The energy she did not burn is 50 kcal higher than the energy she saved by not snacking.

Another situation in which IF can be disadvantageous is when IF triggers overeating. The restricting of eating times is mentally difficult to handle for some people, especially those with a history of eating disorders or chronic dieting. This can result in the loss of control and overeating in the feeding window, which is not only bad for weight loss, but can also result in the development of disordered eating behaviour and other psychological problems, like the feeling of guilt or being unhappy with oneself.


IF and muscle gain

As already mentioned before, IF is probably not the best method for muscle gain for most people, especially for beginners to resistance training.

If you are a beginner, your anabolic window is really long, so after training you can build muscle for up to 72 hours. If you start fasting within those 72 hours, then you will not support your body with enough energy to build muscle.

Screenshot (817).png

However, the more advanced you get then the shorter your anabolic window gets. Therefore, if you are an advanced lifter whose anabolic window is say 16-24 hours, IF wouldn’t be such a big problem if you goal is body recomposition, ie simultaneous fat loss and muscle gain. In this instance what you can do is make sure your bigger meals are after your workout, some food before your workout, and fast before that time to lose fat. In general, training in the fasting window is not the best thing to do.

Screenshot (818).png

Nevertheless, if you are an advanced lifter and you want to focus on building muscle, then it doesn’t make sense to keep fasting windows longer than necessary (e.g. in the case of overnight fast), as during the fasted state the body breaks down more muscle to fuel its energy needs than in the fed state. If you really want to make big gains, then your goal is not only to maximize your muscle protein synthesis, but also to reduce the breakdown as much as possible, as it is the difference between the both that matter in the end for overall muscle gains.


In the second part of this article, I will talk about my personal experience and findings when utilising IF as a dieting protocol. Stay tuned for part two next week!


PS: If you want to make sure you are following the most optimum nutritional plan for your current goals and learn the tools to make your diet work for your lifestyle and not the other way around, then check out my Customized Macros Package!

Why Slow Cutting Burns Your Muscle

“Lose weight SLOWLY!”

“Diet on as MANY calories as possible!”

“If you decrease calories too fast, you WILL lose muscle!”

Really? Is there real science behind any of these claims or are they just bro-science wisdom?

To answer this question, let’s have a look at real data from real research. This data comes from probably the best and absolutely unique weight loss study; the Minnesota experiment.

The reason why I consider this study to be the best is because it studied very drastic weight loss conditions for a prolong period of time on normal weight people.

[ You may be wondering what the problem with current research is. Most drastic weight loss studies involved overweight or obese individuals. Therefore the findings from these studies aren’t necessarily applicable to normal weight people undergoing drastic weight loss diets such as for a bodybuilding competition for example. ]

In the Minnesota experiment, 32 normal weight young men were put on a radical weight loss diet for half a year with the aim to lose 1 kg (2.2 lbs) per week. That’s a lot; 24 kg (~ 53 lbs) in six months!

Each participant was weighed once a week and if he hadn’t lost 1 kg during the week passed, his calories were subsequently decreased. A pretty sadistic weight loss protocol if you were to ask me. This is also the reason, why the study is so unique. Nowadays, it would be impossible to get the ethical approval for such a study!

Over the course of the study the weight loss progress of the subjects were precisely recorded; how much weight they lost, how much of it was fat and how much was muscle.

The amount of muscle mass loss in relation to the total weight loss can be expressed as energy-partitioning p-ratio [p-ratio = burned energy from protein/ total energy burned] (1, 2). If a person burned mostly fat during weight loss and only a low amount of muscle protein, then the ratio is low. In contrast, if the person lost lots of muscle, then the ratio is high.

In the figure below I plotted the data from the Minnesota experiment. We can instantly see that the participants who started at a higher body fat percentage lost less muscle mass (smaller p-ratio) than the participants who started the severe weight loss diet at a lower body fat percentage.

To make it clearer, for participants who had about 20 % body fat at the beginning of the study about 20-30% of the burned energy came from protein, whereas for those who started at about 10 % body fat, 40-60 % of burned energy originated from protein.

A big part of the lost protein came most likely from muscle protein; however; also other sources, like organs for example, were used to cover the energy needs during the weight loss diet. ]

To be honest, this finding is basically common sense:

 If you have more fat, you can lose more fat when dieting.  

In my opinion, for long, drastic weight loss diets, like bodybuilding show preps, it makes more sense to start with a higher energy deficit and decrease it over time to maintain as much muscle mass as possible.

This is exactly the opposite to what most bodybuilders do during show prep; after they lose lots of weight and get to a low body fat percentage, they decrease the calories even further.

A research study conducted on a bodybuilder during the contest prep showed how inefficient the typical bodybuilding cutting strategy can be (3). The poor guy started at 14 % body fat and dropped his energy intake over time ending up with an energy deficit of just over 1000 kcal per day during the last two weeks before the show. Of the 11.7 kg he lost during 14 weeks of show prep, 43% came from fat free mass and ‘only’ 57% from fat. This means that about half of the weight he lost WAS NOT FAT!

So this brings us to the important question, what should you do to prevent unnecessary muscle loss at low body fat percentage?

One important thing we shouldn’t forget is that there is an ongoing balance between muscle protein synthesis and breakdown in the human body. It’s not like your body decides on the day when you start your cut that it is going to stop building muscle and switches to using them as a fuel. Muscle protein breakdown and muscle protein synthesis occurs at the same time. In the fed state, muscle protein synthesis dominates over muscle protein breakdown, thus is it the time when we build muscle. In the fasted state, muscle protein breakdown is higher than the muscle protein synthesis, therefore we lose muscle.

“Skeletal muscle protein turnover illustrates the balance between protein synthesis (shaded bars) and protein breakdown (open bars) during different physiological conditions, including the anabolic period after a meal or the catabolic period during an overnight fast.” Figure source (4)

“Skeletal muscle protein turnover illustrates the balance between protein synthesis (shaded bars) and protein breakdown (open bars) during different physiological conditions, including the anabolic period after a meal or the catabolic period during an overnight fast.” Figure source (4)


Thus, an important take-home message is: fast less and eat more.

I know, this almost comes across as sarcastic advice coming from someone currently on a weight loss diet. Nevertheless, it is not as useless as you think. There are some things you can do to reduce muscle loss whilst in an energy deficit:

1.      Don’t fast for a long time. Intermittent fasting is probably not the best strategy for muscle retention in an energy deficit at low body fat percentage.

2.      Considering that the longest fasting period for most people is the overnight fast, it makes sense to get some protein in before bed to counteract muscle protein breakdown at least in the few hours after falling asleep. This strategy is supported research as well (5). An additional bonus is that protein before bed increases the resting energy expenditure the next morning, thus making it beneficial for weight loss (6).

3.      Of course, the ideal scenario would be not to wait until the next morning, but to just consume more protein at night to prevent your body from breaking down more muscle. If you don’t want to compromise your sleep quality to pour down a protein shake in the middle of the night, you may want to consider a rather unconventional tool: a gastric tube! There is a cool research study on this topic (7). Participants received a constant protein supply via a gastric tube throughout the night, which resulted in an increased rate of muscle protein synthesis.

Does this sound too extreme to you? Your Bro-friend would probably say: No Pain, No Gain. Incidentally, this quote may be even more applicable to nutrition than to training.


If you want to know how I cut and what my cutting macros are, watch this video:


Now, as we’re approaching the end of this post, I will answer a few questions some of you may have in mind or may have asked me already.


If I am one of the nut cases that decides to have protein shakes throughout the night, how much protein should I aim to get?

Most likely 16 g protein per serving is enough, at least for isolated, well digestible protein source like a protein shake. This amount of protein contains enough leucine to maximally stimulate the muscle protein synthesis. If you have protein as a part of a meal, issues with protein digestion and absorption may arise, which in turn may increase the protein requirements per meal. If you want to know more, read this.


Should I take BCAA before bed?

The answer is: BCAAs are better than nothing. If you are lost somewhere in the wildness and have nothing but BCAA with you, take it. However, if you can choose between a protein source that contains amino acids, including all the essential amino acids, then choose that over BCAA.

There are two reasons, why BCAA is not as good as protein:

First, you need all amino acids to build muscle, not only the three that BCAA supplements contain (leucine, isoleucine and valine). BCAA intake without other amino acids doesn’t give enough building blocks for building muscle, especially in a fasted state.

Secondly, it can happen that a part of the BCAAs doesn’t even get to the desired destination: your muscle. Free amino acids (not as part of a protein that needs to be broken down first) are a very easy energy source for your gut cells (8). BCAAs are basically ready to be eaten. Yumyumyum… your gut cells will thank you.


Take-home messages:

1.      When you have more fat to lose, you will lose less muscle in a drastic energy deficit. If you are already at a low body fat percentage and drop your calories too much, you will most likely lose more muscle than necessary.

2.      When you get to low body fat percentages, your goal is to reduce the time during which you muscle protein is broken down as much as possible. This means: reduce your fasting times and have some protein before sleep.


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 If you are confused and don't know what is the best way to lose weight and gain muscle? Then consider booking a consultation with me.



Debunking The Metabolic Damage Myth

Do you struggle with losing weight despite cutting calories?

Are you unable to maintain weight loss?

Do you even gain a few extra pounds extra after each diet?

Maybe metabolic damage is the culprit...and you are doomed to diet for your entire life if you want to maintain weight loss.


Does metabolic damage really exist?

To answer this question, the Bayesian Bodybuilding Research Team, which I am a part of, spent months digging through research literature and analysing research studies on weight loss and regain. Our research review was published in December 2016. In this blog post, I am going to present to you our key findings and give you useful tips on what to do to stay lean after a weight loss diet.  



What is metabolic damage?

Metabolic damage is permanent metabolic slowing after dieting. When you start eating less, your metabolism slows down. Thus, your resting metabolic rate (RMR) decreases because your body doesn’t expend as much energy for all the basal tasks you need to live, such as making the heart beat, for example.


Our research question was:

Does this metabolic slowing persist after you stop dieting and increase your energy intake?


If this is the case, it would be devastating, because if your energy expenditure stays low after dieting, but you increase your food intake to pre-dieting levels, then you will regain all the weight you lost.


Our Findings:

A big part of our study was devoted to the Minnesota experiment. The data from the Minnesota experiment was used in the past as a support for the metabolic damage hypothesis. In this experiment, 32 normal-weight, young men were put on a drastic weight loss diet for 24 weeks (It’s half a year!!!). Their target was to lose 1 kg (2.2 lbs) per week. That’s a lot! Their average body fat level at the end of the diet period was 5%. That’s the body fat level hard-core bodybuilders reach when they compete. However, in contrast to bodybuilders, the participants of the Minnesota study didn’t have much muscle mass to start with. For this reason, they looked like this by the end of their diet.

Time Life

Time Life

Afterwards, the participants were refed under controlled conditions to examine which refeeding strategy is the best after a prolonged semi-starvation period. They underwent a 12-week controlled recovery period, during which they received a prescribed diet. Afterward, some of them, who decided to stay in the facility for additional 8 weeks, transitioned to ad libitum energy intake (meaning they could eat as much as they wanted). During this period the researchers recorded precisely how much each of them ate.


Comparison of basal metabolism before starvation and after refeeding

Previous studies haven’t considered the entire recovery period; they examined only the 12-week controlled recovery. We analysed the entire recovery period of 20 weeks and we found no sign of metabolic damage. We compared subjects' basal metabolism (RMR in relation to each subject’s fat free mass and fat mass) before and after starvation. We used three different RMR prediction equations to obtain precise predictions. We compared the predicted RMR values with the RMR value that was actually measured for each subject. Our results showed that subjects’ metabolism – body composition related RMR - was either the same or even higher after starvation (as I mentioned, we have done this analysis 3 times with different equations).


Energy intake influences metabolism recovery

Another important point was that the subjects were divided into four groups during the recovery period. Each group received a diet with a different energy content. The lowest energy group had a diet with a slight surplus of a few hundred kilocalories more than they needed to maintain their starved bodies. The highest calorie group had a daily energy intake of over 1500 kcal more than they needed to maintain their weight at the end of the starvation period.

The rate of lean body mass gain (aka muscle gain) was the same between all the 4 groups. This makes sense because the guys didn’t even lift. Why should the subjects in the higher calorie groups use the additional energy to build an excessive amount of muscle?

The subjects that were in the highest calorie group gained significantly more weight (59% weight recovery) - thus more fat as muscle gain was about the same in all groups - compared to the lower calorie groups (30% weight recovery). The participants who ate more, gained more fat. It’s that simple.

This table shows subjects' recovery levels during the 12-week controlled recovery period. 'Energy intake for 12 weeks' represents the sum of calories each subject consumed in the 12-week recovery period. The percentage recovery is related to the weight, lean body mass or metabolism change from baseline until the end of the starvation period ( [value after 12 weeks recovery - value at the end of starvation] x 100 / [pre-dieting value - value at the end of starvation] ).

This table shows subjects' recovery levels during the 12-week controlled recovery period. 'Energy intake for 12 weeks' represents the sum of calories each subject consumed in the 12-week recovery period. The percentage recovery is related to the weight, lean body mass or metabolism change from baseline until the end of the starvation period ( [value after 12 weeks recovery - value at the end of starvation] x 100 / [pre-dieting value - value at the end of starvation] ).


The metabolism recovered in relation to energy intake. The groups that ate more had a higher RMR increase. An interesting fact we found was that the lowest energy group had a significantly higher metabolism (body composition related RMR) in the recovery period than in the starvation period. Also, the actual RMR value showed a trend towards higher values, despite the fact that subjects’ body composition was less favourable during the recovery period than during the starvation period (their lean body mass was significantly lower).

Why? Because they ate more!

Important point: Energy intake influences the resting metabolic rate.

Previous researchers who ignored the fact that the subjects were divided into groups receiving diets with a significantly different energy content concluded that RMR recovers in relation to the degree of FM recovery, without being influenced by the higher metabolically active fat free mass. In other words, only after you regain all the fat you lost will metabolic slowing stop.

Our findings sharply contradict this statement showing that metabolic slowing is a result of an energy deficit and is reversible by an increase in energy intake. Post-diet fat gain is not the result of a suppressed metabolism, but overeating.

When you are in a calorie restricted state, your body slows down and expends less energy. When you increase your calorie intake and start eating more, your body starts expending more energy.


Evidence from other studies

The Minnesota experiment wasn’t the only study we looked at. We also examined studies on malnourished individuals and anorexia nervosa patients. We found that even in such a drastic, chronically undernourished state, the basal metabolism of the participants corresponded to their body composition. RMR was low, but it was low because subjects’ body mass was low. Another interesting point is that some studies showed that during refeeding of anorectic patients their RMR increased more than predicted based on their body composition. This means that they actually wasted the energy instead of saving it as fat.


All the cases I have described up to now are very extreme. What about ‘normal weight loss dieting’ or the type of dieting bodybuilders do to get shredded?

We also analysed studies that are more relevant for real-life strength athletes, or just for those of you who want to get super lean and crazy shredded.


We have seen the same trend analysing literature on bodybuilders and other weight class athletes: in caloric restriction, like preparation for a competition, RMR decreases. However, after the competition, when the athletes started eating more to return to their initial body weight, their basal metabolisms also increased.


Take-home message

# 1 Body composition is the most important factor that determines how much energy you expend.

 # 2 Acute changes in energy intake – such as eating less or eating more – can decrease or increase your RMR. But then, within one to three days after you stop dieting and return to your maintenance energy intake, your basal metabolic rate will also increase. The human metabolism is flexible and adjusts to changing conditions quickly.

Based on the current evidence: metabolic damage doesn’t exist!

Want to recap? Watch my video on metabolic damage


What to do if you can’t lose weight or maintain weight loss

By now it should be clear that if you can’t lose weight, it’s not because of metabolic damage. In most cases, poor diet compliance causes weight loss plateaus. Based on my calculations only one 'cheat meal' with an energy content of about 1,500 kcal, may ruin most of the weight loss progress you make in one week. Be honest with yourself and how strict you are with your diet. Also, if you think that you can’t see weight loss on scale because you retain water, it’s most likely not the case. The guys in the Minnesota experiment retained water, but I really doubt that your diet is as drastic as and as long as their semi-starvation was and that you are as ‘starved’ as they were. If so, stop dieting and start putting weight back on.

Another potential reason why you can't lose weight is, because you don’t know how much you should eat, how to plan your diet, or what food to eat to hit your macros. If so, download a free copy of my meal plan guide to learn how to plan a weight loss diet.


How to maintain the lost weight

If you have reached your weight loss goal and want to maintain your current body weight, increase your calorie intake, so that it corresponds to your current body composition. You could use an online calculator to predict your maintenance energy intake. Go from there and adjust calories if necessary. If you keep losing weight, add more calories to your diet. If you start gaining weight (beyond the first day gains that come from increased food volume in your digestive system and/or increased glycogen stores), reduce your energy intake slightly.


Should I reverse diet?

There is no need to reverse diet. Reverse dieting may be a more careful approach to find where your new maintenance is, but it is also a more painful approach that is not really necessary.

The most important thing is: don’t binge and don’t overeat! Just because you reached your target weight doesn't mean that you can eat whatever you want.


The next time someone offers you advice on how to repair your metabolism after dieting, just ask the dude: Do you even science?


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Is Your Food Obsession Really About Food?

Are you one of the thousands of people who could eat all the time? Even just after a meal? And you aren’t even in an energy deficit?

The good news is that your obsession with food may not necessarily be about food. Understanding the real reasons why you think of food all the time will help you to overcome your obsession and live a much happier and healthier life.

Can you tell when you crave food the most despite not being hungry?

Is it when you work or maybe getting stuck with work? Is it when you don’t want to do something or want to procrastinate on an upcoming task?

Do you start craving food during a task that requires lots of focus or after a stressful situation that soaked up your willpower and self-control? It can be anything, from getting stuck in a traffic jam, to giving a presentation or even not telling your boss that he is an idiot, even though you think it all the time.

Food may be just a tool you use to keep your self-control in annoying situations.


Willpower and self-control are limited resources. If you spend too much effort on one task, your working performance on the second task decreases. It goes even further; some research suggests that when people face challenging tasks their blood sugar levels drop, which diminishes their willpower. However, drinking a sugary drink before starting a new task replenishes the willpower and restores the ability to work hard. Metabolic energy (calories) increases the persistence to work on demanding tasks. Thus, it is not surprising that many people are emotional eaters and start craving food after a stressful situation. In this scenario, high-calorie food can serve two purposes:

1. It activates the reward centre in the brain and makes the person feel better.

2. It refills the willpower and self-control if the person has to continue performing stressful tasks.

In this context, stressful tasks don’t even need to be work-related. It can be anything you don’t want to do, even house work, like doing the dishes, or speaking to a relative that makes you feel like your life is a mess.

To cut it short, without even realizing, you may be using food as a tool to force yourself to do things you don’t want to do


By the way, sleep restores willpower and self-control. For this reason, we usually feel much more motivated to work in the morning than in the evening. During the day, our willpower and self-control diminishes. This is also the reason, why most violent incidents happen late at night. People lose their self-control to follow social norms and instead act impulsively. For this reason, it is not surprising, that many people follow their diet in the morning, but fall off the wagon in the evening and overeat on comfort food.

The more challenging the task you have to fulfill or the more decisions you need to make, the faster your willpower and self-control is depleted. The less self-control and willpower you have, the lower your chances to work productively, to give your best when training hard and to eat right for your goals (no matter if it is eating healthily or following a calorie-restricted diet).


What to do

Split your willpower focus on different tasks throughout the day

Set times when you use your willpower for work and other times when you use it for your personal goals (e.g. exercise and healthy diet).

For example, during working hours when you need to focus on work, use your willpower only for this task. Determine what foods you should strategically have to support your mental performance (if you have a job where you need to think a lot or need to be polite to other people). Don’t try to diet hard and starve yourself while performing challenging tasks, as both depletes willpower.

Schedule more challenging tasks for the morning and easier, fun-type of tasks for the evening. It will help you reduce food cravings in the evening, when your self-control is depleted anyway.

In the evening, you can make your diet compliance to your major willpower task. Focus on staying on track with your diet. Spend evenings doing things you enjoy and that don’t require lots of willpower, like reading a book, watching TV, surfing on the internet, hanging out on social media, etc., which distract you from thinking about food all the time.

Tip: If you want to lose weight, and use social media as a relaxation tool, it may be a good idea to unfollow all the people who constantly post food porn.


Set rules and routines

There are several steps for willpower. One of them is setting rules. Rules are important. Without rules you don’t know what to do and what to follow. NOT having a plan is nightmare for your willpower.  Making unnecessary decisions every day depletes willpower that could be used for more important tasks. The more willpower you waste on trivial stuff, the less willpower you have for work and living a healthy lifestyle.

Why not pre-determine what you eat for breakfast every day? Why should you waste your willpower early in the morning by thinking: should I have pancakes for breakfast, or rather cereal, or toast…but what should I put on my toast?

Or even worse, you decide to grab your breakfast on the way to work and get to a place that has dozens of different options that overwhelm you and put you in a state of analysis-paralysis: What option has the better macros? What has more protein? What is healthier? What will keep me full for longer?....

This depletes some of your willpower even before starting the working day. Routines, limited options and restrictions make success in life so much easier.

Many people ask me whether being vegan is hard because I have only limited options available when I go out for meals. No, definitely not. Being vegan makes everything so much easier for me, because I don’t need to waste my willpower deciding which of the dozens of dishes I should choose for dinner.


How to fuel your willpower

Why do we care so much about fuelling our workouts and getting our post-workout nutrition right, but disregard the importance of fuelling our self-control and willpower, which is the basis for achieving our goals?

Build in strategic, willpower-replenishing meals during the working day, rather than trying to push through. If you try to push through, then the chances are higher that you will eventually give in to cravings because a long, annoying meeting depleted your willpower.

You can fuel your willpower to work in the same way as an endurance athlete fuels his body during a long race.

During this time, high carb options, ideally concentrated, fast-digesting glucose sources, are good choices. I love dextrose tablets as a concentrated form of glucose. They act fast, are efficient and don’t add too many calories. If you would like to bring a healthier aspect into the concentrated carbs issue, juices or smoothies are another option.

Of course, whole foods like fruits are healthier, but it takes longer to absorb the sugar because of the high water and fiber content. Also, fruits not only contain glucose, but also fructose, which isn’t a problem in general, but for this certain task of refueling willpower, glucose is better. Thus, you may not get the willpower boosting effect from fruits as fast and as powerful as you may need it (dried fruits may be an exception). The same applies for all kind of sweets like chocolate, cookies & co.

Although they contain sugar, they aren’t as efficient as glucose or dextrose tablets when it comes to boosting willpower. Also, they add much more calories to your macros budget compared to glucose in isolation.

Additionally, dextrose tablets as a carbohydrate source have another beneficial effect. You can keep it in your mouth for a long time waiting until it dissolves. Some research on endurance athletes suggests that mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution (without swallowing it) is enough to improve performance during exercise. It seems like carbohydrates activate oral receptors, which leads to a subsequent activation of brain areas involved with reward, which in turn improves performance. Thus, it is plausible that not only carbohydrate solutions, but also other carb sources have the same effect, especially when kept in the mouth long enough.

Because of practical constraints in the working environment, dextrose tablets are a great choice, as they are small and can be kept in the mouth discretely for a prolonged period of time. On the other hand, sitting in the office with your mouth stuffed with bananas may appear a bit socially awkward.

However, don’t confuse fuelling your willpower with rewarding yourself with food for something you have done. This approach may backfire, as food shouldn’t be used as a reward. An athlete who needs to fuel during a marathon race, doesn’t consume calories to reward himself for running, but uses it as a tool to enhance his declining performance. The same should apply for functional food to boost cognitive performance and willpower. Also, as you may have noticed, I don’t suggest eating your favourite comfort food to make you think harder. What I propose is to consume glucose (or oligosaccharides that are built of glucose units, like dextrose). It is about the function of this specific molecule, not your personal taste.


Additional strategies to refuel your willpower

Take a nap: If you have the opportunity to take a nap during the day, especially when you notice that your willpower is diminishing and you start craving food, do it. It may save you lots of unnecessary calories.

Tell yourself why you do what you do: You don’t necessarily need glucose to motivate you to work (increased glucose consumption for willpower replenishment should be seen as the emergency solution). Intrinsic motivation is another tool to increase your willpower and self-control. Even if you are overwhelmed by your workload and want to run away, tell yourself why you do what you do. Is it to help others? Is it to secure income for your family? Is it because you actually love your work, but forgot it because of the stress. Reminding yourself of the purpose will refill your willpower.

Use sugar strategically: You can use sugar strategically before large meals if you want to keep enough willpower and don’t want to overeat. Having sweets before (dextrose tablet or maybe order a juice before you even choose your meal) can reduce your appetite, increase willpower and may be a good strategy to reduce dessert consumption after a meal (Check out Menno Henselmans’ interview on ad-libitum dieting for more info).


Losing weight and working hard at the same time

Performing mentally demanding work and restricting your energy intake is twice as challenging, as doing just one of these at a time. Sadly, sometimes this situation is unavoidable. There are a few things you can do:

-        If you can choose your workplace (e.g. you are a student and need to study for an exam), choose places in which food is inaccessible. You could work in a library for example, as it is usually forbidden to eat in libraries. This will work against your impulse to get some food, once you get stuck with work.

-        If you like working from cafés, take only as much cash with you as needed to get a drink. If you don’t have any money to get food, you won’t get tempted (don’t take your credit card with you!)

-        If you have to work in an office, create a safe environment. Bring only the food with you to work you plan to eat this day and not more. You can even leave your purse at home to make sure you don't have the option of getting some junk from the vending machine in your building.  Ask your colleagues to keep their junk for themselves and not to offer you any food.

-        You can have dextrose tablets as an emergency solution to refill your willpower, as they don’t have too many calories (12 kcal/ tablet). Also, they are so sweet that it’s unlikely that you will overeat on them.


Do you really want us to eat all the sugar in the form of dextrose?

I know, sugar is not particularly healthy. However, my point is that when you are in a situation that requires lots of willpower and self-control, it is better to have a few dextrose tablets than trying to resist food cravings, eventually losing self-control and ending up eating an entire bar of chocolate. It is about choosing the lesser of the evils. A few dextrose tablets cause less damage than a bag full of cookies, a doughnut or a bar of chocolate.


To sum up:

If you think that you have a problem with food, because you are obsessed with it, there is a chance that your current willpower demanding lifestyle creates your obsession and not the food. Food is just a tool.  


Do you want to take control of your life and finally overcome your food-tool-obsession issue? Then you may be interested in working with me and getting my full support on your journey to your new self.

What I Eat in a Day - Lean & Strong Series Part 3

After you learned in the first two parts of the Lean & Strong Series (Part 1, Part 2) the necessary basics for diet planning for optimal muscle gains, it’s time to apply them. In this blog post I show you how I apply science to my personal diet.


Protein content of my meals

All of my meals have about the same protein content, which is 33 g protein per meal. The meals that are further away from my workout have about 30 g protein and my post-workout meal has slightly more protein, about 40 g. Protein content of my meals is calculated based on the leucine threshold for optimal muscle gain. My daily protein intake is between 125-150 g protein.


Energy intake

My current goal is weight loss. My lifestyle is pretty sedentary, as I work from home and spend most of my day in front of my laptop. For this reason, my calorie intake is fairly low. My calorie target is set to 1650 kcal per day. This is for training days, as train almost every day. On days I don’t train (because I travel or don’t manage it to get to the gym for whatever reason) I aim for 100-200 kcal less.


Fat intake

I aim to get 40% of calories that I consume from fat, which is about 73 g fat per day. To get a balanced fatty acid profile, I aim for 22 g saturated fatty acids (30%), 26 g monounsaturated fatty acids (35%) and 26 g polyunsaturated fatty acids (35%). As I mentioned in my previous post, omega-3 fatty acids, which are one type of polyunsaturated fatty acids, are particularly important and should ideally comprise one quarter to one half of daily polyunsaturated acid intake. For this reason, I get 7-13 g omega-3 fatty acids every day.


Carbohydrate intake

The remaining calories that are required to reach my energy target come from carbs. On most days, my carb intake is between 120-130 g per day. My diet is low in carbs (Yes, vegan low carb diet is possible ;) ), because I feel better following a low carb diet and carbohydrates are not very important for strength athletes. For me, it makes more sense to use my calorie budget for nutrients that are more important for my performance and body composition goals (such as protein and fat).

I this video I show you what exactly I eat in a day.

Do you want me to design your diet? Then check out the ScienceStrength Transformation Bootcamp! You will love it!

Here is an example of what I eat in a day (of course, it can vary :) ):


Protein pancakes with berries, one cup of tea and coffee with unsweetened almond milk, flavoured with vanilla or white chocolate FlavDrops.

Macros: 319 kcal, 28 g carbs, 30 g protein, 7 g fat

I created many protein pancakes recipes, as I absolutely love pancakes. One of my favourite recipes are this pancakes, I also included into my Diet Plan, Training Plan & Recipes Package.

If you can't eat gluten, I also have several gluten-free protein pancake creations. In this video, I show you how to prepare one of them.

Although, I love breakfast, breakfast is a reasonably small meal for me, because it is further away from my workout. It makes sense to consume most calories around the workout.


Morning Snack:

I usually have a big mug of hot almond milk. I use unsweetened almond milk, which only has 13 kcal per 100 ml. I sweeten and flavour it with FlavDrops. I choose to drink hot almond milk instead of eating food as my morning snack, because I made the experience that drinking hot liquid (sometimes I spoon it) is more satisfying to me than eating a small amount of food. A possible explanation may be that my brain registers it as a meal, because it takes a prolonged period of time (as I need to drink it slowly, because it is hot).

Macros: 39 kcal, 0 g carbs, 1 g protein, 3 g fat



I usually have about 350 g veggies, mostly stir-fried zucchini and mushroom with herbs and spices, protein bread and coconut oil for lunch. Coconut oil is my way to get saturated fatty acids in. Each serving of my protein bread contains chia seeds, which are high in omega-3 fatty acids. I get about 2.5 g omega-3 fatty acids per serving protein bread. You may have heard that thermal processing, like baking, destroys omega-3 fatty acids; however, when I analysed the data from a recently published research paper, I concluded that the losses are not significant for real life settings.

Macros: 385 kcal, 32 g carbs, 34 g protein, 13 g fat

If you want to know how I prepare my chia-protein-bread, watch this video.



Dinner is my largest meal, because I have it straight after my workout. I usually have a gigantic salad (~ 200 g leafy greens + other veggies) topped with fat sources like olives or avocado (both are good sources of monounsaturated fatty acids). If I top my salad with other fat sources, such as nuts and seeds, that are low in monounsaturated fatty acids, I use olive oil for dressing to get monounsaturated fatty acids, otherwise I use hemp oil, to increase my omega-3 fatty acid intake.

Additionally, I have protein pancakes. Because I love pancakes, I eat them twice a day (on a weight loss diet…hahaha...I love my diet!).

Macros: 565 kcal, 51 g carbs, 40 g protein, 20 g fat


Pre-Bed Snack:

Most evenings, I have one or two cups of hot almond milk and before I go to bed, protein powder with chia seeds. Research suggests that protein before sleep is beneficial for muscle growth. My favourite protein powder (taste-wise) is white hemp protein powder, particularly when sweetened with maple FlavDrops.

Macros: 341 kcal, 12 g carbs, 36 g protein, 16 g fat


I often use protein powder for cooking, because I don’t like protein shakes. I prefer eating food to drinking it. Eating calories instead of drinking them is more satiating and satisfying. In this video I tell you all my secrets about cooking with protein powder.


Are You Ready For Your Transformation?

Transform your body and mind!

If you found the article helpful, I would really appreciate it if you would share it with your friends, so that they can benefit from it as well. Thank you!

How to Fit Vegan Macros - Lean & Strong Series - Part 2

Struggling to find the right food for your meal plan?

Don't know how to put food together to meals that fit your macros?

Do you overshoot on carbs or fat and don’t get enough protein?


Then read on to learn how to manage your meal plan easily...

In the first part of the Lean & Strong Series you learned how much protein to eat and how to combine fat sources to get balanced fatty acid profile that is optimal for muscle gains. This post will give you practical tips on meal planning.

If you are not sure, how much you should eat, read my practical guide - ‘how much you need to eat to get results’.

After calculating your calorie intake, you have to figure out how to distribute your calories among carbohydrates, protein and fat. To cut it short, you already learned what your protein intake should be in my previous post. I usually set fat at 30-40% of total calories consumed and all the calories that remain to complete the calorie target I use for carbs.  For detailed calculations and explanations how to calculate macronutrient targets download your free copy of the ‘The ultimate Meal Plan Guide’

The next step is to familiarize yourself with vegan protein sources and how to combine them so that you get the macros you want. I saw so many people struggling with putting their food together to a meal plan that hits their macros targets without overshooting on carbs or fat and getting enough protein.

To prevent this scenario, it is important to understand that there are different food categories.

Putting meals together is similar to working with a construction kit. You can use different bricks (food categories) to put meals together with the macros you need.

Do you need help with your diet? Then you will love the ScienceStrength Transformation Bootcamp!

Here a real life example how get the macros you need:

Let's say you want to get 30 g carbs, 30 g protein and 15 g fat in one meal. There are different foods you can combine to achieve this macro target:

1. You can use a combination of pure carbohydrate + pure protein + pure fat source, like fruit + protein powder + oil. For instance, you could combine 125 g banana + 35 g protein powder + 14 g coconut oil to make a smoothie and to hit your target of 30 g carbs, 30 g protein and 15 g fat.

2. You can also use foods with mostly carbs + mostly protein + mostly fat, like legumes + soy products + nuts. If you make curry out of 45 g legumes (dry) + 95 g tofu + 7 g peanuts, you hit the macros targets of 30 g carbs, 30 g protein and 15 g fat, too.

3. Another option is to use protein sources with the same carbs and/or fat amount. You could combine 87 g coconut flour + 20 g lupini beans. Although this a pretty weird combination, it also hits the macronutrient target of 30 g carbs, 30 g protein and 15 g fat and serves the purpose of showing what I want to show; how versatile macros combining is.

Want to recap? Then watch my video on this topic.


If you still aren’t sure where to get your protein and which food belongs to what category, you can find complete lists are in ‘The ultimate Meal Plan Guide’

Giving a food list for each category goes beyond the scope of this post. For this reason, I describe here only one, the most important one in my opinion: category 3. This category comprises food sources that have an intermediate carb, protein and fat content or even a high protein and low carb and fat content.

Choosing food from this category is particularly important for vegans who want to lose fat and maintain or even gain muscle and strength at the same time.

All the food I compiled in the table below is vegan and has a higher or at least similar protein content compared to other macronutrients. This is the food vegan bodybuilders love!

Do you want me to tell you all the info on high protein vegan food for bodybuilding diet once again? Then klick on the video to watch it ;-)


Are You Ready For Your Transformation?

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What’s next?
In the next blog post I will do my own case study. I will show you what I eat and how I apply all the guidelines described to my own diet.

If you found the article helpful, I would really appreciate it if you would share it with your friends, so that they can benefit from it as well. Thank you!


3 Things You Should Know About Muscle Gain - Lean & Strong Series - Part 1

New year, new goals. It's time to plan and to start working on achieving your dreams. Because one of my favourite quotes is

“scientia potentia est” (knowledge is power)

I decided to give you knowledge, so that you have the power to reach your goals. (Yes, also Latin is on my “languages I studied” list)


What you should know before you start reading:

This series will give you guidance on building muscle, particularly with regard to vegan diet (because I’m vegan, the majority of my clients are vegan and I think there is not enough practical, easily understandable, science- and evidence-based info on vegan diet out there). However, as most of the recommendations I give are based on universal research findings, you can benefit from reading my posts also if you are not vegan.


Let’s start with 3 things every vegan (or not vegan) who wants to build muscle should know.


1. Protein content

Vegan protein sources have a lower content on essential amino acids than animal protein sources. Essential amino acids are the amino acids our bodies can’t produce. For this reason, people who follow vegan diet have to eat more protein than omnivores.

It seems like 1.8 g protein per kg bodyweight (0.82 g/lb) is enough protein for strength athletes who consumes animal products. Because vegan protein sources have 16% fewer essential amino acids, I usually recommend vegan lifters to consume about 2.1 g protein per kg bodyweight (0.95 g/lb).

In addition, if less refined cereal grains or legumes is your major protein source, which can be the case for people who follow a high carb vegan diet with about 70% of calories coming from carbs, you might need to add ~20% protein on top. A research study found out that under these conditions protein digestion and absorption can be about 20% lower. Possible reasons for this protein loss may be the anti-nutrients that may inhibit the digestive enzymes or the high fiber content that may interfere with digestion and absorption.

For this reason, if you eat mostly less refined gains and legumes while eating a diet with a high carbohydrate content, you may need to increase your protein intake to 2.5 g/kg (1.14 g/lb).


Side note: If your really read the research paper I link and have done all the calculations yourself, you might have found out that the theoretical protein intake should be 2.7 g/kg under these conditions. I have used 2.5 g/kg for 2 reasons; first of all, the number is easier to remember and secondly, because I really doubt that a significant number of strength athletes reaches a carbohydrate intake of 70%. Such a high carbohydrate content in the diet would displace other nutrients (protein and fat) that are more important for building muscle than carbs. If your macros profile is balanced, 2.7 g/kg protein is a bit of overshooting in my opinion.  


It is important to note that to vegans need to combine different protein sources in a smart way to get a more balanced amino acid profile. If you want to learn more about complete protein and how to combine vegan protein sources, check out this video.

Do you need help with your diet? Then you will love the ScienceStrength Transformation Bootcamp!

2. Leucine content

Leucine is one of the essential amino acids and for those who want to build muscle, it is probably one of the most important amino acids. Leucine gives the signal for muscle protein synthesis (tells your body that you need to build muscle now). To maximize your muscle gains you need to reach a certain leucine threshold. If you are young, then 1 g leucine per meal should be enough to set the signal for maximal muscle protein synthesis.


Side note: Young is relative. Elderly individuals are defined in many research papers as people who are 65 years of age and older. For elderly individuals, the required leucine amount for maximal muscle gain can go up to 3.2 g protein per meal. However, some researchers questioned if the leucine threshold increases with age or with decreasing activity. Some research suggests that elderly individuals who are active show a similar response when it comes to muscle protein synthesis initiation as young individuals.


Vegan protein sources contain fewer leucine than animal protein sources (6-8% vs 8-11% leucine). This is another point why vegans who want to gain muscle should eat more protein. According to my calculations a meal containing 33 g protein should be enough to maximize muscle protein synthesis for a vegan (for an omnivore less than 20 g protein per meal).


Side note to calculations: 16 g plant protein contain 1 g leucine. Because of the issues with digestion and absorption, I mentioned earlier, I doubled this amount to 2 g leucine per meal, contained in 33 g protein.


3. Balanced fatty acid profile

This point is equally important for vegans and omnivores. Vegan diet is naturally low in saturated fatty acids and high in mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In contrast, many omnivorous diets I analysed, were high in saturated fatty acids (coming from animal products) and low in mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. To optimize muscle gains, a balance between all fatty acids is important. In the ideal case, you should get 30 % saturated fatty acids, 35% monounsaturated fatty acids and 35 % polyunsaturated fatty acids (you can learn more about this topic in the science- and evidence-based Bayesian PT – best PT course ever!).

To increase my saturated fatty acid intake (as I don’t eat animal products as a vegan) I consume coconut oil daily. Olive oil, almonds and avocado are my favourite sources of monounsaturated fatty acids.

There are different types of polyunsaturated fatty acids; omega-3 and omega-6 are the most important ones. Ideally, ½ to ¼ of your polyunsaturated fatty acids should come from omega-3 fatty acids. And this is another challenge on the vegan diet (as vegans don’t eat fish). There aren’t many foods that contain high amounts of omega-3 fatty acids. For this reason, you should pay particular attention to you omega-3 fatty acid intake. It is important, because omega-3 fatty acids have the highest association with muscle gain. In general, you should have at least 7% of your total fat intake coming from omega-3 fatty acids. My major omega-3 fatty acid sources are chia seeds, flax seeds and hemp oil (that’s why many of my recipes contain chia or flax seeds).

To make it easier for you I made a list with different fat sources.


The bottom part of the figure is particularly important: Chia and flax seeds are high in omega-3 fatty acids, hemp seeds and walnuts have some omega-3 fatty acids, but also omega-6 fatty acids, peanuts, soy products, sunflower seeds and Brazil nuts have mostly omega-6 fatty acids.


Did you know that you can remember things better when you read, see and hear them compared to just reading? This is a good reason to check out my video on this topic as well ;)


If you want to learn more about meal planning and how to optimize it for your individuals goals, get your free copy of the ‘The ultimate Meal Plan Guide’


Are You Ready For Your Transformation?

Transform your body and mind!

What's next?

In the next blog post I will give you all the tools you need to fit your macros. I will show you how you get enough protein in without overshooting on carbs or fat.

If you found the article helpful, I would really appreciate it if you would share it with your friends, so that they can benefit from it as well. Thank you!


How Much You Need To Eat To Get Results - the practical guide

Do you want to lose fat? Do you want to gain muscle? No matter what exactly is your body composition goal, you have to know how much you need to eat.

How much you need to eat to get results -.png
How much you need to eat to get results -.png

There are dozens of different equations and calculators you can use to determine your needs. Which one should you trust?

If you want to hear my opinion: none of them.

Equations are great to make estimations, good estimations for the average of an entire population. However, you aren’t the average of the entire population. You are unique. Do you want to know how much you should be eating or all the people in your neighborhood with the same body weight; the marathon runner who lives next door or the granny who walks her chihuahua up and down the street every day?

Another reason why I think equations are not ideal is that in order to use one of the more precise equations, you have to know your body composition; your lean body mass and your body fat, not just body weight.To determine your precise body composition, you need to do a DEXA scan or another type of a higher precision body composition measurement (btw. your bathroom scale doesn't cut it). But even then, the chance is high that you get errors due to inter-individual variability. Some people eat naturally more or less than it is in theory appropriate for their body composition. A big part of the differences comes from variations in activity levels; some people move more, some move less. I mean even subconscious movements we don't notice. No equation can precisely predict how much energy you burn when you sing and dance under the shower every morning.

The good news is that you don’t necessarily need an equation to find out how much you should be eating for your goals. Everything you need is to live your live, collect your data and make adjustments based on it.

This is what you need to do:

Track what you eat for at least 3 days, however, the longer the better. One week is ideal. It is improtant that during this time you eat what you normally eat. Don’t decrease your serving sizes, just because you think you eat too much or increase, just because you think that you eat too little. Don’t try to be extra healthy by replacing the chocolate bar you snack on during the day by apple slices. What you need is an honest baseline assessment. You need the point you are at now.

This is how you do it:

  1. Download a food-tracking app: The easiest way to track your intake is using myfitnesspal or any other food-tracking app (download the app on your phone or use it on your computer).
  1. Log your food intake: You can search for the food you eat, set the amounts, you can even scan the barcode to make it faster. It is really simple. However, there is one important thing to consider. When you set up your account, myfitnesspal asks you for your data and makes suggestions on how much you should eat. Please, completely disregard the recommendations! Just eat what you normally eat and log it. I made the experience that in the majority of cases myfitnesspal targets are imprecise. If you realize that you eat more than the app suggests, then it is a good sign.

Want a real life example why not to use the app recommendation? The app gave me a target of 1200 kcal a day! This is ridiculously low for me, even for a weight loss diet. 

  1. Measure the food as precisely as possible: If you have a food scale to weigh out the food you eat, it is great. If not, don't worry, just use standard measuring devices (e.g., measuring cups, measuring spoons) to estimate the food quantities you eat.When you enter your data into the app, pay attention to the entries in the database. Check if they are complete and no data is missing. Also, don’t forget to distinguish between raw/dry or cooked food. Especially for starchy carbs, such as rice or pasta, it makes a big difference.
  2. Calculate your average calorie intake after 3-7 days: Go to the daily summary under the "nutrition tap" or turn your phone by 90 degrees. Write down your calorie intake for every day you tracked, then add all numbers and divide them by the number of days.

Here is an example how to calculate the average energy intake:

Let's say I tracked for 3 days. My energy intake was 2120 kcal the day before yesterday, 2038 kcal yesterday and 1961 kcal today.

My average calorie intake is

2120 kcal + 2038 kcal + 1961 kcal = 6109 kcal

6109 kcal / 3 days = 2036 kcal per day on average

Now, you have to adjust your energy intake according to your goal:

Weight loss

If you want to lose weight, you need to decrease your energy intake. However, your energy intake shouldn’t be so low that it becomes very painful to diet and difficult to sustain the energy deficit. In the ideal case, your energy intake shouldn't fall below your basal metabolic rate.

If you are a beginner and/or have a higher body fat percentage, you can tolerate a higher energy deficit than an advanced lifter without losing lots of muscle.

People who are overweight and beginners to resistance training can target a drastic energy deficit of up to 50%. A smaller energy deficit of only 5% is more appropriate for very advanced and lean lifters. If you are somewhere in the middle between these extremes you need to adjust the percentages accordingly. For example, for an intermediate lifter with a body fat percentage in the normal range, an energy deficit of 20% is reasonable.(1)

Weight gain

For weight gain, similar guidelines apply. If you are advanced, your energy surplus shouldn’t be as high as for a beginner. A beginner can build more muscle, as he or she is further away from his or her genetic potential. A beginner can gain muscle without gaining lots of fat consuming an energy surplus of 20%, whereas an advanced lifter should not exceed a surplus of 2.5-5%.(1)

For more info and cool tips on this topic get your free copy of the 'The ultimate Meal Plan Guide'

One thing to keep in mind is, that everyone responds differently. Some people adapt quickly to the increased energy intake and start expanding more energy by moving more. Then it is necessary to increase energy intake even further if there is no weight gain after 2-3 weeks. Others, however, can adapt to lower energy intake and have difficulties losing weight even though they have already reduced their energy intake. Then it is necessary to decrease the energy intake even further. Also, individuals who aim for a big weight change, not only 2-5 pounds, have to do re-adjustments on a regular basis. As the body weight changes significantly, so does the energy expenditure.

Practical tips

What to do if I can’t eat that much:

  • Shakes: if it is too much food for you, just make a huge and drink it. In my experience, many people who struggle with eating lots of food, have fewer problems 'drinking' it.
  • High-calorie low-volume food: Prefer whole food that is higher in calories, but lower in volume; nuts, seeds, oils, fruits like bananas or mango, or even dried fruits in moderation are good options.
  • Don't eat too much fiber and protein: Both fiber and protein are incredibly important, but eating too much of these can fill you up too quickly and in some cases even cause digestive issues. This doesn't really motivate to eat more.

What to do if I am constantly hungry:

  • Increase your fiber intake: All veggies that are green are great for it!
  • Increase your protein intake (if you consume less than 1.8 g/ kg bodyweight)
  • Eat less sweet foods: Sweets often increase appetite and make us craving more
  • Focus on whole food and cut out as much processed food as possible
  • Drink more: Thirst is often confused with hunger
  • Find something entertaining to do: Watch a movie, read a book, have sex...just do something that is more rewarding to you than eating
  • You will get used to it: Don't forget, when you start a new diet, a new lifestyle or have a change in your life, it takes some time to get used to it and to create new habits. Of course, if your diet starves you, you won't get used to it. However, a well-planned diet shouldn't starve you. A well-planned diet is sustainable, easy to follow and motivates you to continue because of the progress you make!

Need help with meal planning? Get your free copy of the 'The ultimate Meal Plan Guide'

Reference: Guidelines for weight loss and weight gain are based on the info from the Bayesian PT course.  Honestly, the best PT course I have ever seen, because all of its content is based on science and evidence!

Let's Overeat Protein To Lose Fat

  Yes, I know the protein topic can be confusing. Some guys on YouTube say that you can’t gain fat by overeating protein and others, like me, say that it is possible. Actually, the fact that it is not only possible, but in certain cases pretty likely is the content of the science- and evidence-based Bayesian Personal Trainer Course. If you want to learn how to distinguish real science from bro-science and maximize your muscle gains, check out this course!

Let's get back to the protein overeating issue. The best way to look at it is to separate theory from practice.


A person CAN gain fat if he/she eats too much protein. Some amino acids, aka glucogenic amino acids, can be converted to glucose and glucose can used to produce fat. Other amino acids, aka ketogenic amino acids, can be converted to a molecule called acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can be used either for fatty acid synthesis or transformed into ketone bodies, which are used as fuel. Thus, if there is enough energy available coming from over-consumed amino acids then a person doesn’t burn the stored fat. One may even end up storing fat if glucose and acetyl-CoA - made out of excessive amino acids - are used for fatty acid synthesis.

If you are one of the biochem nerds check outmy video

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It is difficult to overeat protein because of its satiating effect.(1–3) Also, protein has a higher thermic effect (~30%) than carbs (~5-10%) and fat (0-5%). This means 30% of the energy you get from protein is used for its own digestion.

Now, let's have a look at some research - in both of these studies resistance trained individuals over-consumed protein (4.4g/kg and 3.5g/kg) in isolation.(4,5) Other nutrients were kept nearly the same in the study group and in the control group. The subjects in both groups didn't gain fat on average, also those who were overeating protein and consequently consuming more total calories (500 – 800 kcal/day).

Interestingly, according to my calculations the subjects in both studies weren't in caloric surplus. Most of them ate a maintenance diet or maybe even slightly more or less energy than they required. Why should they have gained fat? Gaining lots of fat without an excessive calorie intake doesn't really make sense.

Thus, let's have a look at two different studies, in which the subjects were actually overeating (19-20.6 kcal per lb body weight compared to 12-17 kcal/lb in the studies above). One of the studies examined the effects of carbohydrates and protein overeating in comparison to carbohydrate over-consumption (214 g P + 495 g C vs. 90 g P + 597 g C).(6) The energy and fat intake was nearly the same for both groups. And surprise, surprise, there was no significant difference in fat gain. Both groups gained a similar amount of fat. Why didn’t the high protein group gain less?

In the second study, the subjects overate fat and protein in different ratios (45%C/15%P/40%F vs. 45%C/25%P/30%F) consuming basically an isoenergetic diet.(7) Again, also in this study both groups experienced an identical level of weight / fat gain.

Wrap up

It is important to look at the total energy intake and not only at protein intake. Studies conducted in energy surplus, over-consuming both, protein and another macronutrient, suggest that it is possible to gain fat from protein over-consumption. If protein is over-consumed in energy balance or energy deficit, then fat gain is less likely. Why the hell should one gain fat not eating ‘enough’?

How to get a ‘real’ answer to the ‘excess-protein-causes-weight-gain question’?

To get some solid evidence if excess protein causes weight gain, we would need a study, in which both study groups would consume only protein and nothing else (to exclude other effects, such as hormonal effects). Hypothetical study design: one group consumes an excessive amount of protein eating a calorie surplus diet. The other group (control group) eats the amount of protein that is needed to cover the daily energy requirements. What we want to see is if the group with excessive protein AND energy intake gained more fat than the control group. However, who would like to take part in such a study drinking only protein shakes for weeks? ;)


  1. Veldhorst M a. B, Westerterp KR, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Gluconeogenesis and protein-induced satiety. Br J Nutr. 2012;107(04):595–600.
  2. Leidy HJ, Todd CB, Zino AZ, Immel JE, Mukherjea R, Shafer RS, et al. Consuming High-Protein Soy Snacks Affects Appetite Control , Satiety , and Diet Quality in Young People and Influences Select Aspects of Mood and Cognition. 2015;145(7):1614-1622.
  3. Ortinau LC, Hoertel H a, Douglas SM, Leidy HJ. Effects of high-protein vs. high- fat snacks on appetite control, satiety, and eating initiation in healthy women. Nutr J. 2014;13(1):97. 
  4. Antonio J, Peacock C a, Ellerbroek A, Fromhoff B, Silver T. The effects of consuming a high protein diet (4.4 g/kg/d) on body composition in resistance-trained individuals. J Int Soc Sports Nutr [Internet]. 2014;11(1):19. 
  5. Antonio J, Ellerbroek A, Silver T, Orris S, Scheiner M, Gonzalez A, et al. A high protein diet (3.4 g/kg/d) combined with a heavy resistance training program improves body composition in healthy trained men and women – a follow-up investigation. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition; 2015;12(1):39.
  6. Spillane M, Willoughby DS. Daily Overfeeding from Protein and / or Carbohydrate Supplementation for Eight Weeks in Conjunction with Resistance Training Does not Improve Body Composition and Muscle Strength or Increase Markers Indicative of Muscle Protein Synthesis and Myogenesis in. 2016;(November 2015):17–25.
  7. Bray G a, Redman LM, de Jonge L, Covington J, Rood J, Brock C, et al. Effect of protein overfeeding on energy expenditure measured in a metabolic chamber. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Mar;101(3):496–505. 

The complete 'incomplete protein' story

Are you confused which plant protein sources to eat to get a complete amino acid profile? What is a complete amino acid composition? Isn’t it sufficient to eat ‘just enough’ protein?

Actually, we don’t need protein, what we need are particular amino acids. Although most recommendations speak about the protein requirement, the actual requirement is for amino acids, not for protein.1 Amino acids are building blocks for proteins. There are 20 different amino acids that are crucial for protein synthesis. You can imagine a protein as a long chain composed of different amino acids.All organisms - no matter if bacteria, plants or animals - contain proteins. Proteins have not only structural function (e.g. muscle), but also a variety of vital functions for all organisms. Enzymes, antibodies, ribosomes, all of these are proteins. The only difference between proteins found in different species is the amino acid composition, thus the ratio of individual amino acids. To apply the chain analogy: it means that all chains (proteins found in different species) contain all of the 20 different amino acids. However, not all chains have the same number of single amino acids.

Why is the amino acid composition important?

Humans cannot produce all of the 20 biologically important amino acids. Some of the amino acids, aka essential amino acids (EAA), we have to get from food. In general, most plant foods have a lower content of at least one of the essential amino acids compared to animal protein sources. This is the reason why plant protein is often considered to be incomplete. However, not all plant foods are low in the same essential amino acid. For instance, cereal grains are low in lysine, which is the limiting amino acid for many plant protein sources. On the contrary, legumes have significantly higher lysine content, but are lower in sulfur containing amino acids (Fig. 1). For this reason, it often is not enough just to get “only” enough protein, if the protein source is low in one of the essential amino acids.


Figure 1. Content (in milligrams) of essential amino acids lysine and sulfur containing amino acids per 100 g of the selected foods. Cereal grains have relatively high sulfur containing amino acid content compared to their lysine content. For legumes applies the opposite.

Although, it is in theory possible to obtain the recommended daily allowance on essential amino acid from one food source, in most cases an enormous food volume has to be consumed to hit the recommended target.2 For instance, for a 70 kg (154 lb) person it would require the consumption of 1.75 kg (3.85 lb) bread or 3.6 kg (7.92 lb) cooked rice to ensure an adequate intake of the limiting amino acid lysine (as shown in Figure 2). In this case, in order to obtain an adequate amount of the limiting amino acid, other amino acids are over consumed. As you can see in the Figure 2, sulfur-containing amino acids exceed the theoretical requirement (indicated by the red dashed line). For high carbohydrate fruit-based diets it is even more difficult to meet essential amino acid requirements. Let’s take bananas as an example. To reach the recommended lysine intake a daily consumption of 7 kg (15.4 lb) bananas is required. Getting enough of sulfur containing amino acids would require the consumption of 10 kg (22 lb) bananas a day! This huge food quantity is needed just to get the MINIMUM requirement of these essential amino acids. To what extent the human body can adapt to a very low essential amino acid diet is not entirely clear. However, I am very skeptical about the idea that most people (genetic freaks excluded) can thrive on such a diet.

Through a combination of different plant protein sources it is possible to meet the targeted daily allowance of essential amino acids and to obtain a more balanced amino acid distribution. An example for a suitable food combination is the ‘300 g tofu and 400 g rice’ meal shown in Figure 2. This food amount can be easily divided into 2 main meals and is sufficient to meet the requirement for a sedentary 70 kg person.


Figure 2. The amount of different foods necessary to meet the estimated daily requirement for a 70 kg (152 lb) person. The dashed red lines highlight the theoretically required amino acid quantity. The meal consisting of ‘300 g tofu and 400 g rice’ provides the required amino acid quantity in contrast to the same foods when consumed in isolation when not overconsumed.

Using only one protein source to meet essential amino acids requirement can have additional disadvantages. Overconsumption of a certain macronutrient is one of them. Just to give an example: the use of a high carbohydrate and lower protein source, such as bread, to meet essential amino acid requirements drastically increases the amount of carbohydrates in the diet. Getting most of the dietary protein from nuts would lead to very high fat content. Carbohydrate or fat overconsumption is likely to increase the energy intake above the required level and lead to undesired fat gain for most individuals.

If you need ideas how to combine food sources efficiently to get the desired macronutrient distribution following a balanced diet, check this out.

Even if a food source with a higher protein content, such as tofu is chosen, relying on it as a major protein source may have some disadvantages. Although legumes, such as soy, contain compounds that are in general associated with health benefits,3 eating too much of them can also cause micronutrient deficiencies (iron, zinc and calcium) with unbalanced nutrition or undernourishment.4

Do we really need to track all essential amino acids individually to prevent a possible deficiency?

No, not really, provided that a person eats enough protein. In this case, the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of 0.8 g/kg (0.36 g/lb) is definitely not enough. RDA was established using 2/3 animal products with a higher essential amino acid content compared to plant protein sources. Also, RDA characterizes the protein amount at which the risk of becoming protein deficient is very low (<3%) for most sedentary people (as I explain here). To put number on it (YES, I love numbers!), in theory, it is necessary to consume 16% more protein than RDA suggests for people following a well-balanced plant-based diet. This means that a 70 kg person needs to consume 65 g protein (not 56 g as RDA states) to meet the minimal (not optimal!) essential amino acid recommendation.

Take-home message

  1. Eat a variety of protein sources if you follow a plant-based diet, e.g. soy products, beans, lentils, grains, nuts and seeds. Supplement with plant-based protein powders if necessary.
  1. Eat at least 16% more protein than RDA recommends (for healthy individuals)

Side note

When it comes to muscle building, often the importance of leucine for muscle protein synthesis is emphasized (see my previous post). In this context it is important to note that leucine gives the signal for muscle protein synthesis, however, all amino acids (especially essential) are required as building blocks for muscle. For this reason, supplementation with leucine as the only amino acid is not likely to be a promising strategy.


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(1)      Baechle, T. R.; Earle, R. W. Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning; 2008.

(2)      Young, V. R.; Pellett, P. L. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.1994, 59, 1203S–1212S.

(3)      Threapleton, D. E.; Greenwood, D. C.; Evans, C. E. L.; Cleghorn, C. L.; Nykjaer, C.; Woodhead, C.; Cade, J. E.; Gale, C. P.; Burley, V. J. BMJ2013, 347, f6879.

(4)      Schlemmer, U.; Frølich, W.; Prieto, R. M.; Grases, F. Mol. Nutr. Food Res.2009, 53, S330–S375.

(5)         Nutritional information take from:

Carb & Fat Blockers - Backed up by Science?

Who isn’t tempted by the idea? - Eat as much as you want and lose weight at the same time. That’s the reason why fad diets attract so many people after all.

Eat as much starch as you want (starch solution), eat as much fruit as you want (801010), and so on.

But wouldn’t it be great to abandon the restriction of the fad diets and just eat whatever you want without all the calories from it?

That’s where carb blockers and fat binders come into the game.

Calorie Blockers.png


Carb Blockers

Carb blocker are substances, usually extracted from white kidney beans, that block carbohydrate-digesting enzymes.

However, the name 'carb blocker' may be overestimated to some degree. Carb blockers (aka extract of Phaseolus vulgaris) don’t inhibit all carbohydrate-digesting enzymes; they act only on amylases, the enzymes that digest complex carbs (starches). Simple carbs (sugars), either don’t need to be digested to be taken up by the body or are converted into absorbable forms by other enzymes.


Carbs that can be potentially blocked by carb blockers: Starches coming from foods like

-        Bread

-        Pasta

-        Grains, like rice, oats, quinoa, etc.

-        Legumes, like chickpeas, beans, lentils, etc.

-        Starchy veggies, like potatoes


Carbs that aren’t blocked by carb blockers: All simple carbs like glucose, fructose and sucrose found in

-        Fruits

-        Sugary junk food, like candies, ice cream, chocolate

-        Sugar-containing soft drinks


How effective are carb blockers?

One shouldn’t forget that enzymes are highly efficient ‘machines’ that evolved and were optimized over the past hundreds of thousands of years. Even if one fraction of enzymes in the digestive tract is inhibited, the few remaining are so potent that they can digest a significant amount of starch molecules. It will just take longer. Thus, you can’t expect that by taking a carb blocker you can block starch digestion and absorption completely.

 Also, there is the chance that the starch that doesn’t get digested and absorbed will be converted into short chain fatty acids by the intestinal microbiota. These short chain fatty acids are taken up by the human body and contribute to ingested calories.

Let’s do the numbers – which is a very speculative idea from my side:

An in vitro (in the reagent tube) research study has shown that amylase inhibitors have the potential to inhibit about 50% of starch-digesting enzymes. Although this finding is not directly transferable to what happens in the human body, let’s assume that 50% of the starch is digested and absorbed. The remaining 50% will be processed by the gut bacteria, giving us 50-75% of the energy in the form of short chain fatty acids (under the assumption that starches are treated like fibers and possess the same calories content after being transferred to short chain fatty acids).

Making these speculative and very vague assumptions, we would, in theory, still get over 75% of the calories for the eaten starches and lose only 12.5-25% (in the ideal case).

Well, 12.5-25% is better than nothing, but it definitely doesn’t support the idea of eating as many carbs as one wants without gaining weight.


Stop the speculations and speak about real humans!

Multiple human studies were conducted to assess the efficiency of carb blockers on weight loss in real life settings (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6). The evidence in support of carb blockers is mixed and inconsistent. The effectiveness of carb blockers depends on the amount and the type of carbohydrates in the diet. Some research studies have found no significant difference in weight loss between the carb blocker and the placebo group (4, 6), whereas others did (2, 3, 5). However, even the studies that found a difference, couldn’t present any impressive findings. The average weight loss rate in most studies was about 1 kg per month. Considering that participants in all studies were overweight or obese individuals and the trials were often combined with a calorie-restricted diet, the effectivity of carb blockers is pretty poor in my opinion.


Fat Binders

A fat binder (aka chitosan) is a substance that is supposed to bind fat in the intestine and prevent fat from being absorbed. According to fat binder sellers, 2 capsules of a fat binder containing 1 g of the active compound can bind 60 g fat. This sounds like a dream! Sadly, there is a ‘but’. It is likely this amazing finding was obtained in an in vitro study, in which fat, water and chitosan were mixed in a reagent tube to detect how much fat chitosan can bind. Studies conducted in humans show less optimistic findings.

In a research study in which the participants supplemented with 15 capsules a day (5.25 g chitosan) and consumed 135 g of fat daily, the fat absorption in participants was the same before chitosan supplementation compared to the days when the supplement was taken (6a, 6b).

Another study examining supplementation with 2.5 g chitosan per day found out that chitosan could prevent the absorption of 1.8 g fat per day in men, but had no effect on female participants (7). These findings are in line with a third study that found that fat absorption decreased by 1.1 g per day in men supplementing with 10 capsules of chitosan per day (8).

These findings suggest that one fat burner capsule has the ability to bind 0.11 g fat. Considering that the average price for a fat burner capsule is 60 cents when purchased from a bulk supplement supplier, the best advice I can give is:


If you want the same effect that fat binders provide and save money at the same time, eat 1 g fat less in a day. It will save you 9 kcal and 6 Euros (which is nearly the same in US$).

Weight loss studies over a prolonged time period (up to 6 months) examining chitosan supplementation found either no difference in fat loss between the supplementation and placebo group (9, 10) or a small difference. Also, a review reviewing research studies on fat binders concluded that chitosan’s effect on weight loss is minimal (12). The highest fat loss seen from starting chitosan supplementation was 1% body fat loss in 3 months in overweight individuals (13). However, given the participants didn’t change their habitual energy intake throughout the study, which was considerably low with 1700-1800 kcal per day anyway, it is possible that an increase in activity led to increased fat loss in the supplementation group. As the activity level was not monitored, it is not possible to exclude this possible confounding factor. Another research study reported about a decrease in body fat by 0.8% body fat in 2 months in the supplementation group (11). A possible confounding factor in this study is that not all subjects provided dietary records and that there was a trends towards decreased fat intake in the chitosan supplementation group.


When Taking Blockers Makes Sense

As should be clear by now, fat binders seem to be a pure waste of money. Eating a few grams less of fat per day is as efficient as taking fat binders, and much cheaper too.

Carb blockers are more interesting. They can be a useful tool in the big pool of weight loss tools. It doesn’t make sense to make carb blockers an everyday component of a weight loss diet. A weight loss diet shouldn’t be centered around starches anyway. Getting majority of calories from satiating, nutrient-dense food like vegetables, combined with sufficient protein and (essential) fatty acid sources should be the prime goal of an energy-restricted diet plan. Starches, especially refined starches like white bread, don’t fulfil the beforementioned criteria. There is, however, one exception: potatoes – they performed very well on the satiety level and aren’t too bad regarding their nutrient content. The same may apply to other starchy vegetables, however, at this point I extrapolate the data based on my assumptions and not proven research findings.


Carb blockers can be a useful tool for social events, like birthdays, meals out with friends or similar occasions. When you are on a weight loss diet, it makes sense to avoid any unnecessary calories.

When you go out and want to minimize the damage by taking carb blockers, follow these points to benefit from carb blockers the most:

-        Choose foods that are satiating, higher in starches and low in fat and sugar. Good choices are starchy veggies like potatoes. However, don’t choose French fries or fried potatoes, as they violate the low fat criterion.

-        Get protein and lots of fiber-rich veggies with your meal, regardless of whether you take carb blockers or not, as they are filling. The more you fill yourself up with satiating lower-calorie food, the less high-calorie food you will fit in.


And don’t forget: carb blockers are a damage-reduction tool after a starchy meal, not the ‘free ticket’ to overeat on starches.


Would you like to get a simple plan for successful fat loss and strength gain? Then check out my meal plan, training plan and recipe package!



Are there genetic benefits of eating beef?

Just recently, a post/interview was sent to me asking for my opinion. The topic was: research shows that there are genetic benefits of eating beef. I decided to have a closer look at it, as the topic looked interesting.

Research background: One research study found that eating red meat was associated with longer telomeres.

What the hell are telomeres?

Telomeres are ‘caps’ at the end of our DNA. These are repetitive sequences at the ends of our chromosomes. Telomeres protect chromosomes from fusing with each other and other disastrous events. Every time cells divide and chromosomes replicate, small bits of telomeres get chopped off. Short telomeres are associated with aging and the risk of developing cancer. In contrast, longer telomeres are associated with longevity.


Back to the research study: The researchers attained unexpected findings when they examined 28 individuals. The people who ate more red meat had longer telomeres. This finding is surprising, because previous research studies have either reported that red meat consumption had a negative effect on telomere length or no effect.

Also, the beforementioned research study found that smoking has no effect on telomere length as well as physical exercise. These findings are equally surprising, as it is a no-brainer and pretty much established knowledge (that’s why I don’t provide any references) that smoking is bad for you and exercise is good for you.


Ok, here is the problem: the research study that found beneficial effects of red meat consumption on telomere length and no negative effect of smoking was most likely statistically underpowered. In this study, only 28 people were examined. In other studies, which I have mentioned above, up to 70 times that amount were studied; 840 subjects in one study and 1958 subjects in the other. It is likely that the findings that red meat has a positive effect on telomere length, thus longevity, and smoking and exercise have no effect were obtained just by chance. Even the researchers wrote in their paper:

“The study did not confirm negative effect of smoking on telomere length. This finding is probably associated with insufficient sample size. Statistical analysis also excluded the effects of smoking as a covariate modifying the TL among red meat consumers. The observation study continues and we expect changes after its completion.”


As this is an observational study, the researchers will follow the participants for another 3 years, repeat the measurements and see if the findings change (which is very likely in my opinion).


Take home-message:

-        It is not the researchers’ fault that they got very questionable findings and not enough subjects. Everyone who conducts research studies knows how hard it is to get a high subject number. The researchers just reported the results they got (and they were pretty surprised about their findings).

-        The problem is that some people cherry pick the studies that appeal to them and don’t look at the collective evidence. If the majority of evidence (with much higher subject numbers) shows a negative effect or no effect, the findings of one underpowered research study are just not strong enough to make a point.


Want me to tell you everything once again? Then watch this video.  


Confused about what you should eat? If so, then just book a consultation with me. Click here for more info. 


Flexible Dieting - the incredible doughnut solution


Flexible dieting or IIFYM (if it fits your macros) – lively discussed, propagated and misunderstood.

Social media is filled with pictures of doughnuts, cakes, pop tarts, pizza and Co. This trend certainly counteracts the entire ‘clean eating movement’ telling us for years that we have to eat only healthy food in order to get a great looking body.

What is IIFYM?

The IIFYM principle is often misunderstood. Certainly, to some extent it is true, that following IIFYM one can eat whatever one wants, as long the total food amount one consumes is within the target calorie and nutrient (carbohydrates, protein and fat) range for the day. This is the point: nobody can eat tons of fast food all the time magically consuming the number of calories, that leads to weight loss, in case this is the desired goal. High calorie food has to be balanced out with low calorie food to hit the desired numbers of calories and macronutrients. Basically, if a person consumes the entire daily “calorie budget” in one meal, all the other meals have to be very low on calories (e.g. lots of veggies) in order not to exceed the daily target. What gives a wrong impression about flexible dieting is the fact, that most people rather prefer to post pictures of a stack of pancakes than a plate full of veggies.

Controversially, the most important principle of flexible dieting is making healthy food to the foundation of one’s diet to support the individual goals. In theory, the desired macronutrient and calorie targets can be met by a combination of sugar, protein powder and oil. Although, this food selection is theoretically possible, it is neither healthy nor recommended. For a healthy diet micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) and fiber are crucial, however lacking in the mentioned food combination. Fiber, acting as a prebiotic, is essential for a healthy gut microbiota composition, which is a significant contributor to our health.1 In most cases, adverse health effects are not caused by eating a certain food type or nutrient, but by not getting enough of other important nutrients. Occasional junk food consumption does not lead to obesity. The same applies to protein, it is most likely that it is not a high protein diet that causes all kind of diseases, but the lack of vegetables.2

Benefits of flexible dieting

For some people, flexible dieting is common sense and regulated by body’s natural mechanisms. In theory, the consumption of a high calorie meal should reduce hunger and increase the preference for eating a lighter, lower calorie meal later the day. However, it doesn’t work for everyone, in particular, because of psychological or psychobiological factors.

People who eat a high calorie diet (mostly high sugar and fat) have an altered hormonal response to food intake.3 Eating junk food on a regular basis has an addictive-like effect.4 Overeating on sugar and fat makes us craving even more of these nutrients and increasing our portion sizes. Going cold turkey and cutting out all calorie dense food at once is difficult, because of its addictive-like effect and not absolutely necessary. In this case, flexible dieting approach could help making the diet healthier by increasing the amount of lower calorie foods (such as veggies) and keeping the food one enjoys in the diet plan in reasonable amounts. It is very challenging to stick to a diet one hates.

Flexible dieting also is beneficial for people who follow a strict, calorie reduced diet regime. For instance bodybuilding competitors during contest preparations often feel deprived. This increases the chance of overeating or binge eating, once one is faced an unpredicted situation (e.g. food choice outside home) or when self-control is lacking. Everybody is stressed, tired or has a bad day from time to time challenging the will power to stick to a strict diet. Flexible dieting approach could help to avoid control loss in such situations. It prevents categorizing food into ‘good and bad’ or ‘allowed and forbidden’. By nature, most of the time we want the things we cannot get or are not allowed to have. Removing high calorie food from the ‘forbidden list’ will most likely decrease our desire to consume it whenever possible.

How to apply the flexible dieting principle

I already wrote one blog post on IIFYM some time ago. However, not giving concrete examples, I realized, that some people struggle with the application of this principle. For this reason, I would like to include an application example here. Let’s say, I would like to fit two Oreos into my healthy, balanced diet. Adding something that was not planned requires removing some of the initally planned food from my meal plan for the day.

Two Oreos have the following approxiamate nutritional composition:

106 kcal, 15g carbs, 1g protein and 4.5g fat

As Oreos mostly consist of carbohydrates and fat, I need to remove a carbohydrate source (e.g. fruit) and a fat source (e.g. nuts) from my diet in order to compensate for the consumed Oreos.

For example, four almonds and one small apple could do the job:

4 almonds (8g) – 50 kcal/ 0g carbs/ 1.5g protein/ 5g fat

1 small apple (100g) – 53 kcal/ 13 g carbs/ 0g protein/ 0g fat

total of which (103 kcal/ 13g carbs/ 1.5g protein/ 5g fat) is very similar to the nutrient content of two Oreos.

In some cases, it makes sense not only replacing some food, but also adding a certain nutrient. For example, when food with high protein content (e.g. tofu) was replaced by food with a different macronutrient distribution (e.g. pasta - high carb), it may become difficult to hit the desired protein target for the day. Here, the easiest option to ‘regain’ the removed protein without adding many extra calories is to consume a protein shake. Protein powder, as isolated macronutrient, is very convenient to make up for the missing protein.

Bottom line

Flexible dieting is not about eating cookies, cakes, pizza & Co. all the time and getting the body you want this way, except,

  • you have serious problems to gain weight and this is your goal or
  • you are a genetic freak who doesn’t gain weight or
  • have a serious illness that prevents weight gain.

Everything is about balance and moderation. Demonizing entire food groups and eating only ‘super healthy foods’ is not particularly healthy for the mental health. Smart, not strict, is the motto here.

 Interested in vegan, high-protein, guilt-free treats that fit your macos? Get your free recipe ebookby subscribing to my list ;-) 


  1. Arora, T., Sharma, R. & Frost, G. Propionate. Anti-obesity and satiety enhancing factor? Appetite56, 511–5 (2011).
  2. Schwalfenberg, G. K. The alkaline diet: is there evidence that an alkaline pH diet benefits health? J. Environ. Public Health2012, 727630 (2012).
  3. Singh, M. Mood, food, and obesity. Front. Psychol.5, 1–20 (2014).
  4. Schulte, E. M., Avena, N. M. & Gearhardt, A. N. Which foods may be addictive? The roles of processing, fat content, and glycemic load. PLoS One10, e0117959 (2015).

If you 'don’t lose weight' then your fat loss diet is successful - Dieting plateaus and weight fluctuations


Plateaus and weight fluctuations while dieting - Who doesn’t know that?

Almost everyone who diets hits a plateau after some time. This often leads to frustration. Then sudden weight fluctuations (gains or drops) happen overnight. With this article I would like to shed light on the mysterious weight loss process.

Often, when we start dieting we see a significant weight drop (a few kilograms) in the first days. Then, the number on scale gets stuck and doesn’t decrease for a long time until a sudden drop occurs.

The weight loss seen at the beginning of a diet is primary due to water loss and the loss of food volume/weight from our gastrointestinal tract, as usually we reduce our food intake.

Why does water loss occur?

Processed foods. Reduction of processed food intake can lead to water loss. Processed foods often contain a high amount of salt and high glycemic index (GI) carbohydrates, such as sugar and starch. Salt retains water in the body. High GI carbohydrates increase insulin, which leads to salt retention that in turn results in water retention.1 For this reason, cutting out processed food naturally reduces sodium intake and induces the loss of retained water.

Glycogen depletion. Additionally, calorie and carbohydrate reduction also results in water loss. A significant amount of glycogen (carbohydrate reserves) is stored in our muscles.2 One gram of glycogen binds 4 grams of water. In the first days of dieting, when we deplete glycogen stores, we not only lose our carbohydrate stores but also lots of water. One study put numbers on it and measured weight loss (not fat loss) of 11 women after 4 days of a highly calorie restricted diet (energy intake of ~400 kcal/d).2 On average, the subjects lost 4 kg, whereas a weight loss of 2 kg was observed at the lower end of the spectrum and 7.4 kg in the extreme case. Indeed, one of the subjects lost entire 7.4 kg in 4 days. Clearly, this weight was not fat but probably mostly water (7.4 kg fat loss would theoretically require an energy expenditure of over 63,000 kcal, which cannot be achieved in 4 days).

After the first week, when the body adjusted to the new diet and no drastic changes happen any more, often a weight loss plateau occurs. The number on scale decreases very slowly, if at all. During this mentally challenging time, when we don’t see any progress and doubt the efficiency of the weight loss diet, only one high salt and/or high carbohydrate meal can lead to drastic “weight gain”. It seems like we gained all the weight we lost overnight, just from a single meal (see image). However, as you already suspect it isn’t the case, at least not for fat gain. High salt/carbohydrate intake leads to water retention (exactly the opposite of what happened in the first days when we reduced those nutrients) and the number on scale increases. Here, the most important thing is not to panic and keep dieting. The gained water weight disappears again after a few days.

All these effects I have experienced myself when I was cutting weight to get into the descried weight class for a powerlifting completion. The image above presents the data of my own “case study”

However, during long weight loss diets, a high carbohydrate meal can be beneficial to drop water weight. During long periods of caloric restriction, especially when accompanied by high exercises volume, the cortisol level (stress hormone) increases. Too much cortisol is associated with muscle degradation, decreased immune function, impeded recovery6 and water retention (see Minnesota Starvation Experiment). One of cortisol’s physiological roles is to guarantee energy availability in times of energy deficit (to keep blood sugar high enough for essential functions). For this reason, we have the highest cortisol levels in the morning after an overnight fast.3 A carbohydrate rich meal increases blood sugar and decreases the need for cortisol secretion. This decreases cortisol level and leads to the “magic” water loss overnight.

Theoretical considerations about weight loss

Often, when we diet and see only slow weight loss (less than one pound per week) we feel as if our diet doesn’t work. However, one pound for week is a good number, considering that the general recommendation is not losing more than 0.5-1% of body weight per week.4 A reasonable calorie deficit of 500 kcal per day results in approx. 400 g fat loss (1g fat = 9kcal) per week, in theory (although biological system, such a human bodies, don't necessarily follow theories). Sadly, 400 g per week we often don’t even consider as weight loss and are disappointed about the results.

What should we do - increase calorie deficit and exercise volume?

Well, a high calorie deficit (such as ~ 800kcal/ day) is very likely to lead to significant muscle loss, as seen in a recent study on a competitive bodybuilder.5 The weight he lost dieting for a competition consisted of 43% lean body mass. This is definitely not ideal, as most people would like to lose fat and not muscle.

Additionally, high training volume and short rest periods result in increased cortisol secretion, which can lead to problems mentioned above (such as catabolic effects).6

For this reason, drastic calorie restrictions and very high training volumes are not an optimal dieting strategy in my opinion.

Bottom line

If you are on your weight loss journey and have the feeling that nothing happens or you lose weight too slowly (around 400g/ 1lbs per week) and you are really sure to be in caloric deficit, then relax and remember, that slow weight loss is consistent weight loss. Rapid weight drop is often caused by water loss and is not sustainable, as the weight will probably increase after the next carbohydrate/salt-rich meal.

If you diet for a long time and nothing happens, then your stress hormones may be elevated. In this case, the better strategy might be to increase your calorie intake (if calories are severely restricted) and reduce your exercise volume (if your exercise volume is too high) instead of cutting calories even more and further increasing exercise volume.

Side note for women: Premenstrual symptom (PMS) can induce water retention of up to 2kg/ ~5 lbs due to hormonal changes. This is an additional factor to consider.


  1. Osterberg, K. L., Pallardy, S. E., Johnson, R. J. & Horswill, C. a. Carbohydrate exerts a mild influence on fluid retention following exercise-induced dehydration. J. Appl. Physiol.108, 245–50 (2010).
  2. Kreitzman, S. N., Coxon, Y. & Szaz, K. F. Glycogen storage : illusions of easy weight weight regain , and distortions in estimates of body composition3. Am J Clin Nutr56, 292S–293S (1992).
  3. Kaushik, A., Vasudev, A., Arya, S. K., Pasha, S. K. & Bhansali, S. Recent advances in cortisol sensing technologies for point-of-care application. Biosens. Bioelectron.53, 499–512 (2014).
  4. Helms, E. R., Aragon, A. a & Fitschen, P. J. Evidence-based recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: nutrition and supplementation. J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr.11, 20 (2014).
  5. Robinson, S. L., Lambeth-Mansell, A., Gillibrand, G., Smith-Ryan, A. & Bannock, L. A nutrition and conditioning intervention for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: case study. J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr.12, 1–11 (2015).
  6. Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning, 3rd Edition, Baechle, T. R. & Earle, R. W.

Let's burn fat and keep muscle


Weight loss - At some point most of us have this goal. There are so many different motivations for it; health, improved body composition, enhanced strength to weight ratio or - what applies to me as a strength athlete - getting into the desired weight for a competition. For most of us the goal is not only losing weight (fat) but also mantaining muscle and strength.

“Which dieting strategy is the best to reach my goals?” - this is a frequently asked question in facebook groups I admin.

There are so many different approaches. Is low carb & high fat (aka keto-diet) really better than high carb & low fat? Or is it the other way round?

First of all, the best dieting strategy is the one that works for you and you feel the most comfortable with. If you hate your diet, then it is very difficult to stick to it and not to rebound (start eating all the food you love, but weren’t allowed to eat while dieting) after you reached your goal.

In my ‘science and evidence-based opinion’, it does not really matter which strategy to follow. Diets that are high/low in carbs/fat can be equally good, as long as enough protein is consumed (≥ 25% calories from protein)1 and adequate caloric deficit is created.

Caloric deficit

Caloric deficit is crucial for weight loss goals. However, it should not be too high (~ 800kcal/day) not to risk losing too much muscle mass. Studies examining a smaller caloric deficit of ~300 kcal/day showed more muscle retention when calories are restricted.2


Steady state cardio increases energy expenditure and may support the weight loss process. However, too much cardio is definitely not ideal, especially for people who are interested in maintaining their strength and muscle.2 Structured resistance training is crucial to preserve muscle mass under calorie deficit.1

Carbohydrate and fat intake

Adequate carbohydrate intake is very important, particularly for individuals who are already lean and want to lose more weight (e.g. competitive bodybuilders or weight class athletes). Weight loss studies in which higher carbohydrate to fat ratio was consumed showed better results regarding muscle mass retention.2 This suggests that keeping carbohydrate intake as high as possible is a reasonable strategy. There are several reasons for the importance of carbohydrates during weight loss process.

  1. The levels of satiety hormone leptin respond to carbohydrates. Low leptin level results in decreased satiety and increased hunger.1
  2. Low carbohydrate intake may decrease thyroid hormone production and slow down metabolism. When food/energy intake decreases, our bodies try to utilize the available energy as efficient as possible. This leads to a drop in the total daily energy expenditure, increased efficiency in ATP (energy) production and hormonal changes.1
  3. Another possible reason is that low carbohydrate intake may increase cortisol levels (stress hormone).1 Cortisol is involved in gluconeogenesis, the process in the human body that produces glucose when blood sugar level is low (for example in the morning after overnight fast). High cortisol level leads to muscle breakdown and abdominal fat retention.

However, high carbohydrate diets are not for everyone, some people are carbohydrate sensitive. Often individuals who have a higher body fat percentage respond better to a lower carbohydrate diet. Also, genetics plays an important role. People who have a lower copy number of AMY1 gene (encoding starch digesting enzymes) have 8-fold higher odds to become obese on a starch-rich diet.3 For them a diet high in carbohydrates does not make a lot of sense (at least when starch is used as carbohydrate source). Foods that contain simple sugars, such as fruits, may be a better carbohydrate source.

Bottom lineDon’t cut your calorie intake too much. It seems like slower, more careful dieting strategy makes more sense than drastic calorie reduction, as often seen in trendy crash diets.

Don't do too much cardio. Lift weights instead.

Don't remove carbohydrates from your diet, if you don't have a good reason to do so. It is more likely that the success of most low-carb diets is due to reduced caloric intake in combination with increased protein intake. Cutting out carbs often means restricting junk food consumption. Removing calorie dense food with 'addictive potential'is likely to have higher contribution to weight loss than carbohydrate restriction.


  1. Trexler, E. T., Smith-Ryan, A. E. & Norton, L. E. Metabolic adaptation to weight loss: implications for the athlete. J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr.11, 7 (2014).
  2. Robinson, S. L., Lambeth-Mansell, A., Gillibrand, G., Smith-Ryan, A. & Bannock, L. A nutrition and conditioning intervention for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: case study. J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr.12, 1–11 (2015).
  3. Falchi, M. et al. Low copy number of the salivary amylase gene predisposes to obesity. Nat. Genet.46, 492–7 (2014).

How to fit my macros?

In the fitness world the term ‘macros’ means the macronutrient distribution of the three macronutrients - carbohydrates, protein and fat (as percent of total calories consumed or grams) - that an individual aims to eat during the day. The ‘ideal’ macronutrient distribution is an individual and goal dependent thing. Whereas, some people thieve on a higher carbohydrate diet, others prefer diets high in fat. Indeed, within a certain range there is the freedom of shifting the nutrient ratios according to the personal preference. As is often the case, there is no ‘one size fits all’ solution. However, not to run the risk of becoming deficient in a certain nutrient, the macros of an healthy individuals should be somewhere within the acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges:1

  • 45-65% of consumed calories should come from carbohydrates
  • 20-35% from fat
  • 10-35% from protein

A possible danger of a chronic overconsumption of one of the nutrients may result in the inadequate intake of other essential nutrients.2

Carbohydrates are an important fuel source for the human body. Especially for endurance athletes, insufficient carbohydrate intake can lead to a decrease in athletic performance.

Sufficient protein intake is not only important for muscle hypertrophy, but also for many other important processes in the human body: organs and bone tissue consist of protein, nonstructural proteins, such as enzymes, antibodies and hormones, have vital functions and are negatively affected by poor nutrition.3

Fats have numerous important functions in the human body. They are essential building blocks for many molecules and are essential for the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K and carotenoids. Essential fatty acids are required for the formation of healthy cell membranes, proper brain and nervous system development and function and hormone production. Insufficient fat intake can lead to scaly skin, dermatitis, reduced growth, and in some populations to hematologic disturbance and diminished immune response. Eating a low fat diet (less than 15% of calories) can harm health and athletic performance.2,3

Many individuals, following a plant-based diet often have the difficulty of balancing their macros to get the desired distribution. The most common problem is overdoing on carbs or fat and not getting enough protein (for more information on protein requirements see reference 4). It often is a challenge to find the right food combinations to hit the desired targets.

For this reason, it is critical to strike a balance between the consumed foods. There are different food categories most whole foods fall into, either they are high in carbs and lower in protein and fat, or high in fat and lower in protein and carbs or some of them have a near equal amount of all three macronutrients. Category four (vegan high protein food) consists mostly of protein that was isolated from other sources.

To avoid the problem of overconsumption of carbs or fat and not getting enough protein, a meal plan should include food from all 3 or 4 categories (depending on individual goals) and not only from one category.

Of course, it is optimal to plan what to eat a day or even the week ahead.

However, if you realize in the course of the day that you had

  • too many carbs -> choose food from categories 2, 3 & 4
  • too much fat -> choose food from categories 1, 3 & 4
  • too many carbs and too much fat -> choose food from categories 3 & 4

for the rest of the day.

food categories copy
food categories copy

Interested in high-protein, diet-friendly, vegan treats that fit your macos? Get your free recipe ebookby subscribing to my list ;-) 

Bottom line

It is not too complicated to hit the desired macros on a plant-based diet. However, it requires the knowledge of the nutrient content of your food and some planning ahead.

Side note

In my opinion, giving the macronutrient distribution in percent is less optimal, because percent of consumed macronutrient dependent on a total calorie intake. Calorie intake varies depending on the individual goals (e.g. weight gain or loss) and basing macro calculations on it can lead to misleading results.

Just to give an example: if a person on a 2300 kcal diet consumes 150 g protein a day, it results in 26% protein of total energy consumed and is within the acceptable macronutrient distribution range (10-35% from protein). However, if the same person decides to lose weight and decreases calorie intake to 1500 kcal per day keeping protein intake constant, the same amount of consumed protein (150 g) result in 40% protein of total energy consumed, which is out of the acceptable macronutrient distribution range. The general recommendation for individuals following a plant-based diet or those who try to lose weight, is consuming at least 2 g protein per kg of body weight.3 For this reason, I think that calculations for macronutrient requirements should be based on body weight and macronutrient percentages of total energy should be secondary.


  1. Phillips S. M., British Journal of Nutrition (2012), 108, S158–S167.
  3. Essentials of strength training and conditioning, third edition, T.R. Baechle and R.W. Earle

Three possible reasons why you can’t adhere to a healthy diet

Hunger is not the only factor that determines what, when and how much we eat. The best, nutritionally individualized and satiating diet will fail if other factors, such as the mood state, work against it. Many different factors drive our eating behavior. Three of the possible reasons why we eat too much without being hungry, choose the food that is bad for us although we know it better and do not adhere to our diet are explained below. Mood state1

What can be better than a delicious chocolate cake to fight bad mood. Chocolate is the solution for any problem, right?

Bad mood, anxiety and depression makes many people picking “comfort food” with a high fat and sugar content. Overeating is the obvious consequence. On the other hand, long-term consumption of a high-fat and sugar diet, as well as overeating, leads to depression and anxiety. A vicious cycle follows. Overeating, often observed in obesity, affects the brain in a similar manner as drug intake, impairing mechanisms that are involved in decision-making, self-control, stress- and mood regulation. This suggests that some people do not overindulge because they don’t want to be healthy, but because they are addicted to unhealthy food. Here the best advise would be: Do not even start consuming drugs!


Too many thing on the ‘to do list’, not enough time - job, family, daily duties… who doesn’t know this problem?

Here again, stress leads to calorie-rich food choices and stimulates hunger.1,2 Also, inadequate sleep has a negative influence on food intake by increasing appetite. Sleep depravation elevates the level of the “hunger hormone” ghrelin and decreases the production of the “satiety hormone” leptin.3 Guess what? I can foresee a ‘cookie-attack’, especially considering how difficult it is to have enough willpower to resist temptations when tired. Speaking of cookies, in a research study examining the importance of focusing on food during meals, subjects who were distracted during meals by other activities consumed significantly more cookies later the day than the subjects who focused on their meals. These findings suggest that we have something like food memory that controls our appetite. Eating during work, in front of a computer or watching TV impedes our meal memory and increases the probability that we a higher desire to snack later.4

Take away message? – De-stress, sleep enough and focus on your meals to reduce the changes of overeating on wrong foods.


You are consistent with your diet when you are at home and make poor food choices or overeat when you eat out? Have you ever wondered why occasions, such as parties, eating out with friends or having lunch at canteen at work challenge a healthy diet?

First of all, outside home there are more options, more dishes and more foods we want to try. A greater food variety leads to higher food consumption and is associated with weight gain. In contrast, limiting the available food is related to weight loss.5 The same applies for the weekly shopping, if you want to have some kind of “comfort food” at home, limit your selection. Don’t buy chips, chocolate, cookies, ice cream and Co. all at once, as the chances are higher that you will overeat.

Also, social environment dictates how much we eat. To facilitate social interactions and acquire social acceptance we tend to match our food intake to that of the people around us.6 Consequently, being surrounded by people who eat more than we do encourages us to eat more. In this case, probably the best thing is to increase the own self-esteem in order to decrease the need to affiliate with other people.

Bottom line

Factors that determine our eating behavior are very complex and interconnected. Mostly, there isn’t only one single factor that ruins our diet. Sometimes, it makes sense to look at other important factors, psycho-biological or social for instance, than the diet itself to find out why we don’t see the desired progress. Possible reasons and solution approaches are summarized in the image below.

3 factors overeating bg
3 factors overeating bg


  1. Singh, M. Mood, food, and obesity. Front. Psychol.5, 1–20 (2014).
  2. Sominsky, L. & Spencer, S. J. Eating behavior and stress: A pathway to obesity. Front. Psychol.5, 1–8 (2014).
  3. Somogyi, V. et al. Endocrine factors in the hypothalamic regulation of food intake in females: a review of the physiological roles and interactions of ghrelin, leptin, thyroid hormones, oestrogen and insulin. Nutr. Res. Rev.24, 132–54 (2011).
  4. Higgs, S. & Donohoe, J. E. Focusing on food during lunch enhances lunch memory and decreases later snack intake. Appetite57, 202–206 (2011).
  5. Raynor, H. A. Can limiting dietary variety assist with reducing energy intake and weight loss? Physiol Behav.29, 997–1003 (2012).
  6. Robinson, E., Tobias, T., Shaw, L., Freeman, E. & Higgs, S. Social matching of food intake and the need for social acceptance. Appetite56, 747–752 (2011).
  7. Young, S. N. How to increase serotonin in the human brain without drugs. 32, 394–399 (2007).

The fattening hormone insulin - falsely accused

Insulin is crucial for the control of numerous metabolic processes and is essential for our bodies. Sadly, this important hormone has a very bad reputation being considered to be ‘fattening’. In general, it is true that insulin’s task consists in shifting metabolic processes towards energy storage and carbohydrate utilization. However, this does not mean that insulin makes a person fat. It is calorie overconsumption what causes weight gain.


The role of insulin1

Insulin is a regulatory hormone that is secreted when we consume carbohydrate and/or protein-rich food. Insulin acts like a break by signaling the body that processes involved in release of stored energy have to be stopped and the consumed nutrients have to be stored.

In the fasted state - when we sleep for example - our bodies mobilize stored energy to support essential metabolic processes. Fatty acids are broken down and used to produce ketones to be utilized by various tissues as fuel. Liver glycogen (glucose storage) is broken down to maintain the required blood sugar level and support glucose-dependent processes in the brain and red blood cells. When liver glycogen decreases, our bodies start their own glucose production by using mostly amino acids as glucose building blocks. Muscle protein breakdown provided the required amino acids for glucose production.

After a meal, in the fed state, insulin levels rise and stop the described catabolic processes. Additionally, insulin facilitates nutrient uptake into the cells, for example by increasing the number of glucose transports on the cell surface. However, insulin is not necessarily required for glucose uptake.

What happens when insulin is lacking?1

The lack of insulin results in the absence of the described breaking mechanism. Such a condition occurs in diabetes type I. The breakdown of fat, glycogen and muscle tissue does not stop even in the fed state. The loss of control over these processes, leads to an steady increase in glucose and ketones in the blood stream. Uncontrolled ketone production causing abnormally high blood ketone levels decreases blood pH and can be fetal. However, this process, called ketoacidosis, should not be confused with controlled ketosis. Controlled ketosis occurs during long periods of fasting or on a ketogenic diet and is required to supply tissues with energy in form of ketones.

It is not only sugar that increases insulin

Although an increase in insulin levels is usually associated with sugar, it is important to note that essential amino acids, especially branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine, lead to insulin secretion.2–4

Indeed, consumption of dairy products, such as milk and whey protein that are high in leucine, was shown to elevate insulin levels more than white bread despite lower measured blood glucose concentration overtime.5

Insulin promotes hunger and weight gain - truth or myth?

It is a wrong, widespread belief that insulin has ‘fattening’ prosperities. Actually, the opposite is the case. Insulin reduces appetite and food intake through its regulatory functions in the brain.6,7 In this context, it is likely that a drop in blood glucose levels and not necessarily the function of insulin results in hunger and increases food intake.8 Additional evidence provides the fact that high protein diet increases satiety despite spiking insulin levels.9

Bottom line

Insulin is demonized to be the bad hormone that makes us fat. Often, the success of low carb diets is justified with the argument that insulin levels are kept low. However, considering the fact that such diets are mostly high in protein the ‘low insulin argument’ does not apply, in my opinion. The success of low carb diets is mostly due to the satiating effect of protein and restricted food selection.

Insulin is NOT bad. This hormone is essential for our health and metabolic regulation. Although, insulin inhibits fat utilization in the fed state, it does not make us fat. Insulin levels start decreasing some time after a meal and are low when we sleep at night. That is when more fat is used as energy source. We should not obsess over hormonal response that occurs only for a limited time after a meal, but look at the entire 24-hour period. Here, it is balance between calorie expenditure what matters for body composition goals and not what happens after a single meal.


(1)     Sonksen, P.; Sonksen, J. Br. J. Anaesth.2000, 85, 69–79.

(2)     Loon, L. J. C. Van; Saris, W. H. M.; Verhagen, H.; Wagenmakers, A. J. M. 2000, 96–105.

(3)     Calbet, J. A. L.; Maclean, D. A. 2002, 2174–2182.

(4)     Floyd, J. C.; Fajans, S. S.; Conn, J. W.; Knopf, R. F.; Rull, J. J. Clin. Invest.1966, 45, 1487–502.

(5)     Nilsson, M.; Stenberg, M.; Frid, A. H.; Holst, J. J. Insulin2004, 1246–1253.

(6)     Kleinridders, A.; Ferris, H. a.; Cai, W.; Kahn, C. R. Diabetes2014, 63, 2232–2243.

(7)     Somogyi, V.; Gyorffy, a; Scalise, T. J.; Kiss, D. S.; Goszleth, G.; Bartha, T.; Frenyo, V. L.; Zsarnovszky, a Nutr. Res. Rev.2011, 24, 132–54.

(8)     Chaput, J.-P.; Tremblay, a Int. J. Obes. (Lond).2009, 33, 46–53.

(9)     Gerstein, D. E.; Woodward-Lopez, G.; Evans, A. E.; Kelsey, K.; Drewnowski, A. J. Am. Diet. Assoc.2004, 104, 1151–3.

Calories in vs. calories out – why a "wrong” calorie diet is doomed to failure

Calories in vs. calories out – this is definitely NOT the only determining factor for a successful fat loss diet. We don’t eat just calories. We eat food composed of different nutrients. Different nutrients have different effects on our bodies. For this reason, the same number of calories coming from different sources - fat, protein or carbohydrates – leads to different hormonal responses.1 To go one step further: some food may even be addictive.2 A fat loss diet filled with “wrong” calories and addictive foods is doomed to failure. HORMONES & BODY COMPOSITION

Our bodies secrete many hormones responsible for body composition and satiety regulation: the appetite-suppressing hormone leptin or blood sugar lowering and anabolic hormone insulin, just to name two. Different types of nutrients lead to the formation of different hormones. Some of these hormones promote satiety and energy expenditure, others hunger and energy storage. Eating hunger-promoting foods is certainly undesirable when fat loss is the personal goal. A hunger-promoting effect has been suggested for the consumption of concentrated sources of rapidly absorbable carbohydrates, such as sugary and/or starchy processed foods, because they lead to rapid insulin secretion. Insulin drives the ingested nutrients into the cells causing a brisk drop in blood sugar. This results in food cravings, because the body wants to restore the blood sugar level. It is important to note that in contrast to the popular belief, insulin is not the 'fattening' hormone, it is a satiety hormone.

Additionally, the overconsumption of rapidly absorbable carbohydrates may promote resistance to the satiety hormone leptin by inducing changes in gut microbiota.1 Replacing sugar by non-caloric artificial sweeteners does not necessarily solve this problem. Some sweeteners, such as saccharine, sucralose and aspartame, may promote glucose intolerance and alter gut microbiota. The changed gut microbiota contains bacteria that are more efficient in energy extraction, thus, can get more energy out of the foods we eat. Such alternation in gut microbiota* has previously been associated with diabetes and obesity.3


Rapidly absorbable refined carbohydrates not only activate physiological pathways unfavorable for fat loss, but also may lead to addictive-like eating behavior. Fat addition makes it even worse. Chocolate, pizza, ice cream & Co. are the top candidates for addictive foods.2 Also, some research indicates, that excessive fat consumption decreases dopamine production in the brain and is a possible reason for overeating. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is responsible brain’s reward mechanisms, also mediating the reinforcing effects of foods.4


Ideally, a ‘bulletproof ‘ fat loss diet should consist of foods that

  • have a high satiating effect
  • don’t promote hunger and energy storage
  • don’t result in addictive-like eating behavior

Foods high in protein and fiber have probably the most potent effect on satiety.5,6 Also, foods with high water content are beneficial. When it comes to carbohydrates, choose whole foods with slowly absorbed carbohydrates, such as vegetables, whole grains and fruits (this excludes fruit juices).1,5 Avoid processed foods, high in starchy, sugary carbs and fat, as such foods promote hunger and addictive-like eating behavior.1,2 Also, the consumption of non-caloric artificial sweeteners seems to have a negative effect on health and weight management.3


Dieting is hard anyway. We should not make it even harder by choosing foods that makes us hungry and lead to overeating because of their 'addiction-promoting' nutrient composition. There are days when we are stressed, tired and less motivated. On such days, we don't have the will power to resist temptations and then it is particularity important to have an 'inherently safe' diet.

*Side note: There are many different factors that can influence gut microbiota. Mostly, there isn't a single culprit for negative health outcomes. In my opinion, insufficient fiber consumption is the most factors that fosters negative changes in gut microbiota.



(1)     Lucan, S. C.; DiNicolantonio, J. J. Public Health Nutr. 2015, 18, 571–81.

(2)     Schulte, E. M.; Avena, N. M.; Gearhardt, A. N. PLoS One 2015, 10, e0117959.

(3)     Suez, J.; Korem, T.; Zeevi, D.; Zilberman-Schapira, G.; Thaiss, C. a.; Maza, O.; Israeli, D.; Zmora, N.; Gilad, S.; Weinberger, A.; Kuperman, Y.; Harmelin, A.; Kolodkin-Gal, I.; Shapiro, H.; Halpern, Z.; Segal, E.; Elinav, E. Nature 2014.

(4)     Tellez, L. a.; Medina, S.; Han, W.; Ferreira, J. G.; Licona-Limon, P.; Ren, X.; Lam, T. T.; Schwartz, G. J.; de Araujo, I. E. Science (80-. ). 2013, 341, 800–802.

(5)     Gerstein, D. E.; Woodward-Lopez, G.; Evans, A. E.; Kelsey, K.; Drewnowski, A. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 2004, 104, 1151–3. (6)     Arora, T.; Sharma, R.; Frost, G. Appetite 2011, 56, 511–5.

(6)     Arora, T.; Sharma, R.; Frost, G. Appetite 2011, 56, 511–5.